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Pharmacology Unit7&8

Pharm Notes(Antibiotics)

TermDefinition
ATB? Antibiotics: chemical substances that kill or suppress the growth of other microorganisms.
Selective Toxicity? selective to injure only the target cell or target organism without injuring others.
How is selective toxicity achieved?(3) 1.can break through the cell wall of bacteria. 2.can inhibit a enzyme that bacteria needs for survival.(like taking away source of food). 3.Stop the production of more bacteria.
Narrow-Spectrum? active against a few organisms.
Broad Spectrum? Active against a wide variety organisms.
Bacteriostatic? Inhibits bacteria growth by weakening them
Bactericidal? kills bacteria. its a good drug for immunodeficiency
Mechanisms of drug resistance?(4) 1.Microbes can inactivate the drug. 2.can stop uptake of certain drugs. 3.may synthesize compounds to block the dug. 4.Microbial drug receptors may undergo change that can decrease ATB binding action.
Nosocomial Infections infections gained in the hospital. they are the most difficult to treat.
Suprainfection? new infection that occurs during the course of treatment for a primary one.
How to delay Emergence of Resistance?(2) 1.take ATB only when needed. 2.use narrow-spectrum drugs.
How to choose the right ATB to produce maximal effect?(3) 1.Match the drug to the bug by obtaining Cultural. 2.Find what the organism is sensitive to by obtaining a Sensitivity test. 3.Must be able to penetrate the site.
Conditions for ATB ruling out?(3) 1.allergy. 2.inability to penetrate. 3.host is toxic to the drug.
combining ATB? Indications?(5) For specific situations only. Indicat: initial therapy cause severe infection, pt have mixed infections, trying to prevent resistance, decrease toxicity and enhance ATB action.
Combining ATB disadvantages?(3) increase risk for allergy, risk for suprainfection, and increased cost.
Prophylactic ATB? Indications? given to prevent an infection rather than to treat a infection. Inidcat: surgery, bacterial endocarditis(inflammation in the lining of the heart), Neutropenia, recurrent UTI, rheumatic carditis(inflammation of muscles around the heart), and STDs.
Penicillin? Action?(1) Use?(1) Adverse Effects?(1) Cross-Sensitivity to?(1) Resistance?(1) PCN:safest. Act: Bactericidal. Use: broad spectrum ADR: allergic reaction. Cross sensitivity to cephalosporin. Contra:allergy to PCN or cephalosporin. Resis: Gram Negative
Cephalosporins? Action?(1) Classification?(1) Adverse Effects?(1) Contraindications?(2) Drug-Drug Interactions?(1) Education?(2) Cep:Most widely used. Act: Bactericidal. Class: 4 Generations, allergy to one gen, take none or PCN. ADR:suprainfection of C-Difficile. Contra:Allergy to Cep or PCN. Drug:Alcohol. Edu:can take with food, and lidocaine for injections.
Tetracyclines? Uses?(5) Action?(1) Adverse Effects?(2) Drug-Drug Interaction?(4) Contraindications?(3) Education?(1) Tet: tx uncommon infections. Use: Rocky Mt., Lyme, mycoplasma, acne, and malaria. Act:bacteriostatic. ADR: Yellow/Brown teeth, Photosensitivity. Drug: MG, CA, AL, FE. Contra: Renal failure, <8yo, liver damage. Edu:empty stomach/food prolongs absorp.
Aminoglycosides? Action?(1) Use?(2) Adverse Effects?(2) Contraindications?(1) Amino:Parenteral Only. Act:Bactericidal. Use:Systemic Infections, TB(combo). ADR: Ototoxicity(ear poisioning), Nephrotoxicity. Contra:Renal
Fluoroquinolones? Use?(3) Action?(1) Adverse Reactions?(3) Contraindications?(1) Drug-Drug Interactions?(2) Drug-Food Interactions?(1) Education?(1) Flu:New,Po. Use:TB, AIDS, Cancer. Act:Bactericidal. ADR:seizures, tendon rupture, anaphylaxis. Contra:<18yo. Drug:antacids and Macrolides. Food:Milk/dairy products reduce absorption. Edu:report inflammation or pain in tendon.
Macrolides? Action?(1) Use?(1) Drug-Drug Interactions?(1) Education?(1) Macro:good substitution drug. Action: Bacteriostatic. Use:substitute for PCN allergy. Drug-Drug:taking with fluroquinolones. Edu:take on empty stomach.
Aztreonam? Action?(1) Adverse Effects?(1) Azactam. Act:preserve normal gram positive organisms. ADR:seizures.
Clindamycin? Action?(1) Use?(1) Suprainfection?(1) Cleocin: limited and can cause C-Difficile. Act:Bacteriostatic. Use:Alternative to PCN. Supra:Candida common.
Chloramphenicol? Action?(4) Adverse Effects?(1) Education?(1) Chlor:Deadly. Act:penetrates ocular fluid, CSF, crosses placenta and enters breast milk. ADR:Gray baby syndrome. Edu: LAST DRUG OF CHOICE.
Carbapenems? Three Types?(3) Car(3 passengers in a car.) 1.Imipenem/Cilastatin(Primaxin): used for organisms that are resistant to one another. 2.Meropenem(Merrem): used for Bacterial Meningitis. 3.Eratpenem(Invaz): just new.
Vancomycin? Action?(2) Use?(3) Adverse Effects?(3) Contraindicated?(3) Administration?(1) Monitor?(2) Van:serious infections. Act:both bactericidal/static. Use:C-diff(PO only), MRSA, and MRSE. ADR: oto/nephrotoxicity, and thrombophlebitis. Contra:child <8yo, pregnant and lactation. Admin:slowly, can cause Red-Man Syndrome. Mon: IV site, Peak/Trough.
Teicoplanin? Use?(1) Action?(1) Adverse Effects?(1) Targocid: newer drug similar to vancomycin. Use: organisms resistant to vancomycin. Act:Bactericidal. ADR: none.
Dalfoprostin/Quinupristin? Class?(1) Use?(1) Adverse Effects?(1) Synercid. Class: Streptogramins. Use: Vacomycin resistant organims. ADR: Hepatoxicity.
Linezolid? Class?(1) Use?(1) SE?(4) Zyvox. Class: Oxazolidinones. Use:VRE. SE: n/d/ha/anemia
Metronidazole? Use?(6) Flagyl: Anaerobic Bacteria. Use:C-diff, CNS, bones/joints, skin/tissues, prophylaxis in surgeries and H.Pyloric.
Created by: aneshia