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Chapter 14

Medical model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease
Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness from another
Etiology refers to the apparent causing and developmental history of an illness
Prognosis forecast about the possible course of an illness
Comorbidity the coexistence(exist at the same time or place) of 2 or more disorders
Epidemiology the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Prevalence refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period
Anxiety disorders are a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive fear and anxiety
Generalized Anxiety disorder marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
Phobic disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
Panic Disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
Agoraphobia a fear of going out to public places
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
Concordance rate indicates the % of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
Dissociative disorders are a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
Dissociative Amnesia (The 3 dissociative syndrome) A sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting (excessive stress)
Dissociative Fugue (The 3 dissociative syndrome) People lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity (excessive stress)
Dissociative identity disorder (The 3 dissociative syndrome) Involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete and usually very different personalities
Mood disorders are a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over the disrupt physical perceptual, social and thought processes
Unipolar disorder (The 2 basic types of mood disorders) experience emotional extremes at just one end of the mood continuum, troubled only by “depression”
bipolar disorder (The 2 basic types of mood disorders)(more of a major one) vulnerable to emotional extremes at both ends of the mood continuum, going through periods of both “depression” and “mania”
In “major depressive disorder”... people show constant feelings of sadness and misery and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
Anhedonia a diminished ability to experience pleasure (a feature of depression)
Dysthymic disorder consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in the fact or condition to being severe to justify diagnosis of a major depressive episode
Bipolar disorder (formerly known as “manic-depressive disorder) characterized by the experience of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) a type of depression that follows a seasonal pattern and postpartum depression, a type of depression that sometimes occur after childbirth
Delusions are false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality
Hallucinations are sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross deformation of perceptual input
Paranoid schizophrenia is dominated by delusions of harassment/presecution, along with delusions of greatness
Catatonic schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular inflexiability to random motor activity
Disorganized schizophrenia a particularly severe worsening of adaptive behaviour is seen
Undifferentiated schizophrenia marked by characteristic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
Negative symptoms involve behavioural deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal apathy, impaired attention and poverty of speech
Positive symptoms involve behavioural excesses or an odd habit/feature, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behaviour and wild flights of ideas
Expressed emotion (EE) the degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward the patient
Personality disorders are a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
Antisocial personality disorder marked by heartless, controlling, aggressive and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms
Autism (or autistic disorder) refers to a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, along with repetitive and stereotypic behaviours, interests and activities
Culture-bound disorders are abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
Created by: eric25
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