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Psychology

Final Exam over Chapters 1-14

TermDefinition
Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Fathers of Psychology Psychology-William Wundt American Psychology-William James Behaviorism-John Watson
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective believed that psychological problems were actually caused by conflicts between "acceptable" behavior and "unacceptable" (unconscious sexual or aggressive motives)-Key words
Behavioral Perspectives Key words-(study of observable behavior and observable stimuli) believed psychology must be "the scientific (study of observable behavior-key words) and thought studying unconscious forces was unscientific. Behavior results from (observable stimuli (from the environment) and observable responses (behavioral actions)
Humanistic Perspective key words(individuals strive to grow and realize highest potential) (individuals strive to grow, develop, and move toward self actualization (a state of fulfillment in which we realize our highest potential), differs by focusing on positive aspects of a human being rather than just the negative
Cognitive Perspective key words-(the brain is a computer) focus on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information using a vast array of mental processes (thinking, perception, memory, language, and problem solving)
Neuroscience/Biological Psychology perspective key words-(body and brain enable emotions) how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences, studies structures and function of individual nerves cells, roles of various parts of the brain, look at genetics and biological processes and how they contribute to behavior
Evolutionary Perspective key words-(evolution of behavior and mental processes) focuses on natural selection, adaption, and evolution of behavior and mental processes, looks at how natural selection explains certain human traits and tendencies
Social-cultural Perspective Key words-(behavior and thinking vary across cultures) look at how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures, look at how factors such as ethnicity, religion, occupation, and socioeconomic class all have enormous psychological impact
Placebo Effect key words-(caused by expectations alone) results caused by expectations alone, it has no known medical effects, most placebos are sugar pills
Consciousness key words-(awareness of ourselves) our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Alternate States of Consciousness key words-(mental states and waking consciousness) mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, meditation, etc.
Meditation key words-(group of techniques) group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an alternate state of consciousness
Hypnosis key words-(trance like state) trance like state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus; also considered a social interaction in which one person (hypnotist) suggests to another (subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will occur
Nature vs Nurture key words-(genetic endowment and learning experiences) controversy over whether individual differences are the results of genetic endowment (nature) or the consequence of learning, i.e. experiences (nurture)
Authoritarian Parenting Style key words-(impose rules and expect obedience) impose rules and expect obedience
Permissive Parenting Style key words-(make few demands) submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment
Authoritative Parenting Style key words-(demanding and responsive) both demanding and responsive, sets rules and enforce them but also explain the reasons, and for older children, encourage open discussion and allow exceptions when making the rules
Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development 1) Infancy 2) Toodlerhood 3) Preschool 4) Elementary School 5) Adolescence 6) Young Adulthood 7) Middle Adulthood 8) Late Adulthood
Acquisition key word-(initial stage) the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus (NS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) so that the neutral stimulus (NS=CS) beings triggering the conditioned response (CR)
Generalization key word-(tendency, after conditioning, similarly) the tendency, after conditioning, to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus (CS)
Discrimination key word-(ability to distinguish) the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and other irrelevant stimuli
Extinction key word-(weakening of a conditioned response) the weakening of a conditioned response (CR) when an conditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
Spontaneous Recovery key word-(reappearance after a pause) the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response (CR)
Psychological Disorder key words-(clinically significant disturbance) a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in a person's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Deviant Behavior key word-(judged abnormal) statistical frequency has to do with a behavior being judged abnormal if it occurs infrequently (or not very often) in a given population.
Distressful Behavior key word-(individual's judgment) has to do with the individual's judgment of his/her level of functioning; is it causing them emotional distress, sometimes OCD cause this
Dysfunctional Behavior key word-(day to day functions are being affected) has to do with whether or not a person's normal day to day functions are being affected like getting along with others, holding a job, eating properly, cleaning themselves. Their ability to think clearly and act rationally may also be affected.
The Biopsychosocial Approach of Understanding psychological Disorder (culture and psychological disorders) schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, social anxiety, bulimia nervosa; some psychological disorders
DSM-5 key word-(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
Anxiety Disorders key word-(persistent anxiety, reduce anxiety) psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorders key word-(autonomic nervous system arousal) (anxiety that lasts for at least 6 months) disorder in which a person is continually tense, fearful, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic Disorder key word-(long episodes of intense dread) disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Phobias key word-(persistent, irrational fear) disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
Specific Phobias key words-(specific object/situation) fear of specific object/situation-needles, heights, spiders, rats (people know it is irrational, but fear anyway. Sometimes in therapy a technique called flooding is used)
Social Anxiety Disorder (formerly known as Social Phobia) key word-(irrationally fearful of embarrassing themselves) irrationally fearful of embarrassing themselves in social situations (public speaking or eating in public are examples)
Agoraphobia key word-(restrict normal activities) restrict normal activities for fear of having a panic attack in crowded, enclosed, or wide-open places (some never leave their home and it can get worse)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) key word-(unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions) disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessive) and/or actions (compulsions); Examples: fears of germs, or being hurt, troubling religious or sexual thoughts, also repeatedly checking, counting, cleaning, washing body parts
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) key word-(traumatic experiences) disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or more after a traumatic experiences
Dissociative Disorders key words-(conscious awareness becomes separated disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) key word-(controversial rare disorder) controversial, rare disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (formally known as Multiple Personality Disorder)
Personality Disorder key word-(inflexible and enduring behavior) disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial Personality Disorder key word-(exhibits a lack of conscience) (older terms sociopath/psychopath) a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members
Substance-Related Disorders key word-(substance craving) continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk
3 Categories of Psychoactive Drugs Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens
Mood Disorders key word-(emotional states) extreme disturbances in emotional states; there are 2 main types
Major Depressive Order key word-(long-lasting depressed mood) long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life
Bipolar Disorder key word-(depression and the overexcited state) a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
Schizophrenia key word-(characterized by delusions) a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression
Psychotherapy key word-(psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth) treatment involving psychological techniques; interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Biomedical Therapy key word-(prescribed medications) prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology
Psychoanalysis Key words-(unlock the secrets of the unconscious) the point is to unlock the secrets of the unconscious, remember psychoanalysis emphasizes unconscious conflicts and processes. In therapy they try to get beyond the defense mechanisms of the ego and bring issues into consciousness
Free Association key word-(whatever comes to mind) reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents
Dream Analysis key word-(true meaning of dreams) interpreting the underlying true meaning of dreams to reveal unconscious processes
Resistance key word-(blocking from consciousness) the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Transference key word-(patient's transfer) the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (also countertransference)
Interpretation key word-(psychoanalyst's explanation) the psychoanalyst's explanation of patient's free associations, dreams, resistance, and transference
Psychodynamic Therapy key word-(envolved from psychoanalysis) contemporary perspective that envolved from psychoanalysis
Humanistic Theparies key word-(personal growth and potential) therapy that focuses on removing obstacles that block personal growth and potential
Empathy key word-(insightful awareness) an insightful awareness and ability to share another's inner experience
Unconditional Positive Regard key word-(no contingencies attached) love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
Genuineness key word-(awareness of one's own true inner thoughts) (or Authenticity) the awareness of one's own true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others
Active Listening key word-(listener, echoes, restates) empathetic listen in which the listener, echoes, restates, and clarifies
Carl Rogers'-Client-Centered/Rogerian Therapy key word-(emphasizes the client's natural tendency) (person-centered therapy) therapy that emphasizes the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive (4 techniques in his therapy)
Behavior Therapies key word-(unwanted behaviors) therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
Exposure Therapies key word-(techniques that treat anxieties) behavioral techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid
Systematic Desensitization key word-(associating a pleasant, relaxed state) associating a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing, anxiety-triggering stimuli (commonly used to treat phobias)
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy key word-(exposes people to electronic simulations) an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears (airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking)
Aversive Conditioning Therapy key word-(associating an unpleasant state) associating an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior (like when the therapist give alcoholics drinks laced with severe nausea drugs, or you give a nail-bitter that awful tasting polish)
Token Economy key word-(tokens for privileges or treats) people earn a token for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for privileges or treats
Cognitive Therapies key word-(teaches more adaptive ways of thinking) therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy key word-(cognitive, behavior) combines cognitive therapy (changing faulty thinking) with behavior therapy (changing faulty behaviors)
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) key word-(eliminate emotional problems) goal is to eliminate emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs. Usually results from "should" and "musts"
Group and Family Therapies key word-(therapy with 6-10 people or families) therapy usually with 6-10 people or families; research indicates it is just as effective as individual therapy
Family Therapy key word-(family as a system) treats the family as a system; views an individual's unwanted behavior as influenced by or directed at other family members
3 Basic Benefits Offered by Psychotherapy 1) Hope for Demoralized People 2) A New Perspective on one's self and the world 3) An Empathic, trusting, and caring
Antipsychotic Drugs key word-(treats schizophrenia) drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of sever thought disorders
Antianxiety Drugs key word-(control anxiety) drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
Antidepressant Drugs key word-(treat depression) drugs used to treat depression and anxiety disorders
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) key word-(brief electric current) a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Psychosurgery key word-(removes or destroys brain tissues) surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effect to change behavior
Lobotomy key word-(to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients) a psychological procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling center of the inner brain
Examples of Therapeutic Life Changes 5) Anti-rummination (identifying/redirecting negative thoughts aka positive thinking) 6) Nutritional supplements (including daily Omega-3 fatty acids) 1) Aerobic Exercise (30 min./day) 2) Adequate Sleep (7/8 hrs.) 3) Light Exposure (30 min./morning) 4)Social Interactions (less alone time/at least 2meaningful social interactions/week)
Created by: Bearlover