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Unit 5

Radiation Protection

What is the definition of diagnostic efficacy? The degree to which the diagnostic study accurately shows the presence or absence of disease pg. 4
What is the definition of background equivalent radiation time? The method of comparing the amount of radiation received from a patient's x-ray to the natural background radiation received over a given period of time pg. 9
What is the electromagnetic spectrum? The full range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic waves pg. 9
What is equivalent dose? A radiation quantity used for radiation protection when a person receives exposure from various types of radiation pg. 12
What is the largest contributor to background radiation? Radon pg. 15
What are the components of natural background radiation? Terrestrial, Cosmic, and internal from radionuclides, radioactive atoms pg. 14
What is a radionuclide? An unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability pg. 17
What is the definition of absorption? The transference of electromagnetic energy to the atoms of a material pg. 31
What is the absorbed dose? The amount of energy absorbed per unit mass pg. 31
Which type of scattering is responsible for most of the scattered radiation produced during procedures? Compton scattering pg. 38
What is photoelectric absorption? An interaction between an x-ray photon and an inner-shell electron pg. 40
What is photodisintegration? An interaction that occurs above 10 MeV in high-energy radiation therapy pg. 48
What is somatic damage? Biologic damage caused by ionizing radiation pg. 53
What is the definition of linear energy transfer? The amount of energy transferred on average by incident radiation to an object per unit length of track pg. 63
What is the definition of radiation weighting factor? The factor chosen for the type and energy of the radiation in question pg. 64
What is the tissue weighting factor? A measure for the relative risk associated with irradiation of different body tissues pg. 65
What is the collective effective dose? This is used to describe radiation exposure of a population or group from low doses of different sources of radiation pg. 67
What are the components of the cell? Cell membrane, cytoplasm, Cytoplasmic organelles-(endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus or complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes, centrosomes), and the nucleus pg. 100 and 101
What is the radiation weighting factor? This is used to calculate equivalent dose to determine the ability of a dose of ionizing radiation to cause biologic damage pg. 116
What occurs in direct action? Biologic damage occurs as a result of ionization of atoms on master, or key, molecules pg. 118
What is indirect action? The effects produced by reactive free radicals that are created by the interaction of radiation with water molecules pg. 118
What can target theory be used to explain? Cell death and nonfatal cell abnormalities pg. 128
What does the term LD 50/30 signify? The whole-body dose of radiation that can be lethal to 50% of the population within 30 days pg. 146
What does the term linear nonthreshold curve imply? The biologic response to ionizing radiation is directly proportional to the dose pg. 161
What does the linear-quadratic nonthreshold curve associate with? It estimates the risk associated with low-level radiation pg. 161
Created by: cfdishon