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ARRT review

What is ionization caused by? high-energy, short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation that break apart electrically neutral atoms pg 225
Name the two types of x-radiation are produced at the anode through energy conversion processes. Bremsstrahlug and characteristic radiation pg 227 berms comprises 70-90 percent of the x-ray beam.
What are dose- response curves represent? they are used to illustrate the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and possible resultant biologic responses pg 230
Define Linear. linear relationship are those in which the response is directly related to the dose received , if the dose is increase the biologic response is increased page 230
Define nonlinear. effects are not proportional to the dose page 230
Define threshold. refers to the dose below which non harmful effects are likely to occur, or the point/dose at which a response first begins.
Define non-threshold. no safe dose even one photon can cause a response page 231
What is direct effect? direct effect occurs when the ionizing particle (an electron) interacts directly with the key molecule (DNA) or another critical enzyme or protein. page 234
What is indirect effect? indirect effects, which occurs most frequently, happens when ionization takes place away from the DNA molecule in cular water.
What is radiolysis? ionization of water molecules in the body breaks water molecules into smaller molecules often production one or more atoms having unpaired electrons page 234
What is the Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau? states that the most radiosensitive cells are young, undifferentiated, and highly mitotic cells. page 237
What is the most radiosensitive cell? Lymphocyte pg 237
what is somatic effect? are described as being early or late depending on the length of time between irradiation and manifestation of effects. page 240
What are occupationally exposed personnel are concerned with? the late effects of radiation exposure page 242
Define beam restriction? that is limitation of irradiated field size, is probably the single most important factor in keeping patient dose to a minimum, the primary beam must be confined to the area of interest so that only that tissues of diagnostic interest should be irradiated
What is inherent filtration? is that in which a filtration is built-in and it is composed of materials that are a permanent part of the x-ray tube and its tube housing. page 253
There are two types of AEC list them. ionization chamber type and phototimer type page 260
explain reproducibility. for a given group of exposure factors, output intensity must be consistent from one exposure to the next; any variation in output intensity must not exceed 5% page 262
Difference between primary and secondary barriers. primary barriers-protect from the useful beam and secondary barriers protect from scattered and leakage radiation page 272
List the cardinal principles of radiation protection? time, distance, and shielding
roentgen measures what? measures ionization in air
Rad is .... acronym for radiation absorbed dose
Rem is .... acronym for radiation equivalent man in SI unit measurement of Sv (Sievert) used to quantify biologic effectiveness
What is a film badge? low-cost radiation monitors that are processed monthly
What is TLD? thermoluminescent dosimeter contains crysitallins chips of lithium fluoride. LiF absords and stores the energy associated ionizing radiation. page 285
Lifetime cumulative exposure for the occupationally exposed individual is determined by? 1 rem times age in years page 289
Created by: kdfields