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Knee Joint

Functional Anatomy

TermDefinition
genu valgum foot lat to knee; slight med angulation of the femur; normal; lat compartment compression; knock-knee; < or = 165 degrees
genu varum foot med to knee; more common; med compartment compression; bow-leg; > or = 180 degrees
3 compartments of knee 1. Medial compartment 2. lateral compartment 3. patellofemoral compartment
joint stability of the knee not due to bony approx b/c of mismatch btwn surfs of femur to tibia; stability provided by menisci, ligs, capsule & body weight
menisci fibrocartilagenous; anchored at the intercondylar area; coronary ligaments= meniscotibial ligs; move with the tibia
medial meniscus c-shaped; less mobile; attachments to deep layer of jt capsule & MCL through coronary ligs; attached to ACL & Semimembranosus
lateral meniscus o-shaped; more mobile; not as many attachments; not attached to LCL; PCL, popliteus attachments; attached ant to med meniscus via transverse ligament
Intraarticular ligs of the knee ACL & PCL
extraarticular ligs of the knee MCL & LCL
anterior capsule medial & lateral patellar retinacular fibers
post capsule oblique popliteal lig, arcuate popliteal lig, & popliteus musc
lat capsule ITB
med capsule runs from patellar tendon to post capsule
Baker's Cyst Popliteal cyst; will limit full flexion
semiflexed (15-20 degrees) position position of comfort
cruciate ligaments named for their tibial attachments
ACL runs in a post, sup & lat direction to attach to lat femoral condyle; tight in extension
Mechs of injury of ACL sudden hyperext'n of knee; 60-70% are non-contact injuries; K in slight flexion w/ sudden varus or valgus stress on the knee
O'Donoghues/Unhappy triad Medial meniscus, MCL, & ACL tears
PCL thicker than ACL' attaches to med femoral condyle; tension peaks btwn 90-120 degrees of k flex
mechs of PCL injury dashboard injury & contact sports; much larger impact; doesn't simultaneously injure other structures as often
Collateral ligaments both tight in ext'n; taught in ER of tibia
MCL (tibial collateral lig) flat & broad; like tissue paper; more posterior; limits valgus/abd force (gapping of the med structures)
Gurdy's tubercle just lat to tibial tubercle; attachment of hams & ITB
Created by: MeganFultz2