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X ray circuit

chapter 5 bushong

What are the 3 main components of the imaging system? operating console, high voltage generator,tube
what is the operating console used to control? The quality and quantity of x-ray beam
What type of transformers are in the high voltage generator? a step up and a step down transformer
what 4 functions does the operating console allow you to control? current (mA), voltage (kvp), exposure time, line compensation
why do electric circuits and meters connected to the console operate at low voltages? to minimize possible shock hazzards
most x-ray imaging systems work on 220v but some can operate at _______ or ________ 110v/440v
what does the line voltage compensator measure? The voltage provided to x-ray imaging system
what does the line compensator adjust the voltage to? 220v
what is known as the "orchestrator" in the console? autotransformer
what is the auto transformer responsible for? accepting, controlling and delivering low voltage power to the high voltage power to the high voltage/ step up transformer
what is usually the in put to the auto transformer? 220v
what is the output of the autotransformer? usually controllable between 100-400v
on an autotransformer what is the primary connections responsible for? conducting the input power
what is the secondary connection of the autotransformer responsible for? serve to either increase or decrease the voltage depending on where they are located along the winding
what type type of induction is the autotransformer? self induction
what are taps on the autotransformer? places where voltage exits the transformer
In autotransformer law what is the relation between voltage and turns ratio? directly proportional
In autotransformer law what is the relation between current and voltage? inversely proportional
what are the 2 kvp options on some older models? major and minor
what does voltage leaving the autotransformer become? input to the high voltage transformer
which side of the autotransformer is the kvp meter on? secondary side
which side of the high voltage generator is the kvp meter on? primary side
What is the kvp meter responsible for reading? total voltage leaving the autotransformer before it reaches the high voltage transformer
What controls tube current from cathode to anode? mA
The number of electrons produced through thermionic emission is determined by? The temperature of the filament
what does filament current operate at? 3-6A
if tube current works on 3-6 amperes what is the range in milliamperes? 3,000-6,000 milliamperes
where is the filament circuit located? along the autotransformer
what does the filament circuit control? tube current
What is placed along the filament circuit in order to control current and create mA station? precision resistors (or rheostats)
Once a mA station had been selected ,voltage travels from the mA selector switch to the_______ filament transformer
Is the filament transformer a step up or step down transformer? step down
what is the official name for the filament transformer? filament heating isolation step down transformer
Why are the secondary windings heavily insulated on the filament transformer? because it is connected to the high voltage supply for the x-ray tube
whats the difference between the primary and secondary windings on the filament transformer? primary are thin copper and secondary thick copper
what is the range that the primary windings on the filament transformer carry? .5-1A and 150 v
what is the range that the secondary windings on the filament transformer carry? 5-8A and 12v
what does the mA meter monitor? tube current
where is the mA meter? at the center of the secondary winding of the high voltage transformer in the x-ray tube circuit
where are most exposure timers? on the secondary side of voltmeter and primary side of high voltage transformer
what does an exposure timer control? how long current runs through the filament
what is the name of a safety feature that will terminate exposure at a designated time. (~6 sec) guard timer
what type of timer cannot make serial exposures because it has to be manually reset after each exposure? synchronous timers
what type of timer allows for serial exposures? electronic timers
what is designed to provide the highest safe tube current for the shortest time possible? mAs timers
what side of the high voltage transformer is the mAs timer on? secondary side
A device that measures the quantity of radiation that reaches the IR and cuts off exposure when appropriate AEC
where are AEC's located? between the patient and the IR
what type of timer is the AEC used in conjunction with? electronic timer
back up timer should be set to _____x's the expected time ~1.5
what type of image will you get in the timer for the AEC is too short? a light image
what will happen if the timer for the AED is too long? it will add unnecessary dose to the patient and a dark image
what are the 2 types of AEC devices? Ionization chambers and photomultiplier tube
what is in the AEC chamber of a photomultiplier tube? a small photocathode tube
what are the 3 primary parts of a high voltage generator? high voltage transformer, filament transformer and rectifiers
what does a high voltage generator do to output voltage from the autotransformer? increases it to the appropriate KVp needed for x-ray production
what are 2 reasons the high voltage generator contains oil? for insulation and to conduct heat from the high voltage section
The turns ratio is usually between ____ or ______ for a high voltage transofrmer 500:1 /1000:1
what is voltage and current measured in on the primary side of the high voltage transformer? voltage-V current-A
what is voltage and current measured in on the secondary side of the high voltage transformer? voltage-KVp current-mA
what type of current is required for the x-ray tube function appropriately? direct current
What is the purpose of a voltage rectification? to convert current from AC to DC
What are rectifiers? electronic devices that contain diodes
What are diodes? solid state electronic devices that are made of silicon or selenium and contain 2 electrons
what do rectifiers in a circuit determine? how little or how much voltage is produced
how many diodes does half wave rectification contain? 1 or 2 diodes
how many pules per second are produced by a half wave rectification? 60 x-ray pulses per second
how many diodes does a full wave rectification have? at least 4 diodes in the high voltage circuit
how many pulses per second are produced by a full wave rectification? 120 x-ray pulses per second
what do the arrows in the diode indicate? the direction of the current
what type of x-ray beam does a single phase generator produce? pulsating x-ray beam
what type of generator results in 6 pulses per 1/60 sec or 360 per second? three phase generators
what type of generator produces nearly constant potential voltage waveform. high frequency generator
what is the voltage ripple % for 1 phase? 100% ripple
what is the voltage ripple % for 3 phase and 6 pulse? 14% ripple
what is the voltage ripple % for 3 phase and 12 pulse? 4% ripple
what is the voltage ripple % for high frequency? <1% ripple
what is the disadvantage of low ripple? cost
A benefits of low ripple is ___ dose to the patient because less technique is need for the same image less
What are two equations for power rating? P=IV or W=AV
What is power rating expressed in? kW
Created by: lchadderton