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Spinal Region

Neuro

QuestionAnswer
segmental dysfxn focal lesion of dorsal or ventral root or entire spinal nerve
anterior cord syndrome spinal cord stroke of anterior spinal artery; paralysis, analgesia, & loss of temperature discriminative sensation; DCML intact; sxs bilateral at segment & below; damage to descending motor tracts & the somas of LMN"s; impaired motor control
vertical tract function loss of fxn below the level of the lesion
lateral corticospinal tract dysfxn Babinski's sign is present
syringomyelia swelling of the central canal of the spinal cord; loss of pain & temp discrimination at level; almost always occurs in c-spine; greater UE>LE involvement.
Brown-Sequard syndrome a hemisection of the spinal cord; ipsilateral segmental losses, ipsilateral loss of voluntary motor control, conscious proprioception, & discriminative touch below the level of the lesion, & contralateral loss of pain & temperature discrimination.
cauda equina syndrome lower motor neuron lesion; musc weakness, decr'd muscle tone, decr'd reflexes, loss of pain sensation, & sensory impairment of bilateral or unilateral lower limbs & altered bowel & bladder control; compression &/or irritation of nerve roots below L2.
tethered cord syndrome stretch injury damages the spinal cord &/or the cauda equina; consequences: lbp, lower limb pain, diff walking, probs w/ bowel & bladder control, & ft deformities.
LMN damage damage at s2-s4; sympathetic relaxation of bladder wall remains (t11-L2); parasympathetic & voluntary control are lost; bladder is flaccid; overdistended bladder & urine will dribble out.
UMN damage injury above S2; descending control (voluntary control) over voiding & PS influence are lost; bladder is hypertonic/spastic; spontaneous contractions at low volume; reduced bladder capacity
spinal shock due to interruption of descending inputs that provide tonic facilitation of spinal interneurons; suspends all non-essential functions & focuses on healing itself through edema, inflamm, etc...; cord fxns below lesion are depressed or lost; minutes to mos
autonomic dysfxn loss of descending sympathetic control due to lesions at T6 or above
autonomic dysreflexia excessive activity of the sympathetic system following injury above T6 caused by a non-noxious stimulus; characterized by incr'd bp, HA, & sweating above lesion; no ability to use descending parasympathetic control to stop
poor thermoregulation no descending sympathetic innervation from hypothalamus below the lesion; no sweating below the lesion; excessive sweating above the lesion to compensate
poikilothermia internal body temperature begins to mimic the external environment
orthostatic hypotension no descending sympathetic response to raise BP by incr HR, & output foce, vasconstriction, no muscle pumps in LE to red effects of gravity, betc...; will lessen over time w/ development of spinal postural reflexes as sc reorganizes;
injury between c4 & T6 breathing near normal; autonomic dysreflexia, orthostatic hypotension, poor thermoregulation; lack voluntary bladder & bowel control
injury between S2-S4 lack of reflexive b& b control & pelvic organ control
NOGO neurotransmitter that blocks growth & development of oligodendrocytes
Created by: MeganFultz2