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Learning: Psych

acquisition pairing a neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus which results in NS becoming CS; most effective when NS presented just before US
fixed interval schedule reinforces only after a specific time period has elapsed
learning a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
negative reinforcement consequence intended to increase a behavior by giving a negative motivation
variable ratio schedule reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses
positive reinforcement consequence intended to increase a behavior by giving a positive motivation
Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect consequences result in an increase or decrease of behavior; operant conditioning works off this idea
Bandura's bobo doll experiment experiment in which children exhibited violent behavior more readily after seeing violence modeled
punishment consequence intended to decrease behavior by giving a negative motivation
discrimination when animal responds differently to similar stimuli; pavlov taught dogs to discriminate between ovals and circles; circle was a CS but dog would not respond to oval
variable interval schedule reinforces after an unpredictable time period has elapsed
extinction gradual disappearance of CR when CS is repeatedly NOT presented with US; bell is rung but no food is given then dog will stop salivating after a while
generalization occurs when animal responds to new stimulus that is similar to the CS; pavlov's dog -> oval and circle; child gets bit by her dog and is now afraid of all dogs
conditioned stimulus arbitrary neutral stimulus produces a conditioned response
unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that gets a natural response without any conditioning
neutral stimulus a stimulus that gets no natural response
conditioned response a learned response to an arbitrary neutral stimulus
unconditioned response a response that occurs naturally to an unconditioned stimulus
primary reinforcer natural reinforcers which meet basic needs (hunger, thirst)
secondary reinforcers reinforcers with importance based on primary reinforcers (green paper has no meaning in itself but we know it can be exchanged for food etc)
insight learning spontaneous realization of how to solve a problem
classical conditioning associative learning that two stimuli occur together; ex: stimulus 1: lightning, stimulus 2: thunder => stimulus, we see lightning, we anticipate thunder
Wolfgang Kohler developed experiments to demonstrate insight learning
associative learning learning that certain events occur together; events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning)
latent learning learning that becomes obvious only when reinforcement is given
John B. Watson father of behaviorism used classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov expert in physiology did an experiment with associative learning with dogs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction
continuous reinforcement reinforcing a response every time the behavior is acted
Operant Conditioning type of learning where a certain action/behavior is reinforced or punished by the response; behavior then increases or decreases
fixed ratio schedule reinforces only after a specific number of responses
mirror neurons neurons that are stimulated when we see things happen to others; associated with a type of observational learning
Created by: username_here