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pharmacology

final exam review

QuestionAnswer
capable of killing bacteria bactericidal
capable of inhibiting growth or reproduction of bacteria bacteriostatic
organic fat-soluble compound produced naturally in the body and manufactured synthetically steroid
agent active against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species broad spectrum antibiotic
combining of separate elements into a complete whole synthesis
chemical product of the endocrine glands; has a specific effect on organs when secreted into body fluids. hormone
capable of acting against infection; inhibit spread of infectious agent or killing the agent anti-infective (antimicrobial)
antibacterials, antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anti protozoans anti-infective
not a true antibiotic; not synthesized by microorganisms; treat UTI and otitis media (ear infection); avoid sun; report nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and rashes Sulfonamide
first true antibiotic grown and used in humans Penicillin
loss of appetite anorexia
act by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial cell walls; effective against bacteria that multiply rapidly penicillin
chemically related to penicillin and have similar mechanism of activity cephalosporins
inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria cephalosporin
3 generations that act on certain gram positive and gram negative organisms cephalosporins
used for urinary, respiratory and ab infections,bacteremia, meningitis osteomyelitis cephalosporins
infections of the membranes in the brain meningitis
infection of the bone resulted from trauma osteomyelitis
effective against gran-negative and gram positive bacteria; inhibit protein synthesis by bacterial cells tetracycline
used for patients allergic to penicillin, venereal diseases, UTIs, acne, rickettsial, mycoplasmic infections, upper respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, and meningitis tetracycline
parasite infection rickettsial
sexual transmitted diseases venereal diseases
Rocephin (Ceptriaxone) cephalosporins
doxycycline tetracycline
may cause tooth enamel hypoplasia and permanent yellow, gray, or brown staining to teeth if administered during tooth development years tetracycline
underdevelopment of a tissue hypoplasia
inhibit protein synthesis in suspectible bacteria macrolides
used to treat respiratory, GI tract, skin, soft tissue infections, sexually transmitted diseases macrolides
used when penicillin, cephalosporin, tetracycline cannot be used macrolides
Erythromycin macrolide
bactericidal that causes phototoxicity which need increased fluid intake fluoroquinolones
levaquin (levofloxacin) fluoroquinolone
kill bacteria by inhibit protein synthesis; used against gram negative microorganisms that cause UTI, meningitis, wound infections, and life threatening septicemias aminoglycosides
kanamycin (kantrex) aminoglycoside
infection when the pathogens circulate in the blood septicemia
inhibit TB bacterial growth by altering cellular RNA synthesis and phosphate metabolism antitubercular
Ethambutol (Myambutol antitubercular
INH (isoniazid, nydrazid) antitubercular
disrupts the TB cell wall and inhibits replication; used alone, may cause hepatotoxicity INH (antitubercular)
inhibit viral cell replication antiviral
specific to certain viruses antiviral
treat herpes genitalis acyclovir
acyclovir antiviral
disrupt certain fungi cell functions, disrupt metabolic pathways interfering with cell wall and protein synthesis, stop cell division and new cell growth antifungal agents
fluconozole (Diflucan) antifungal
nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrodantin) urinary anti- infective
interfere with bacterial enzyme system nitrofurantoin (urinary anti-infective)
not effective against microorganisms in the blood or tissues outside of the urinary tract nitrofurantoin (urinary anti-infective)
can cause urine discoloration nitrofurantoin
treat allergy symptoms, also motion sickness, insomnia, and other nonallergic reactions antihistamines
Loratadine (claritin) antihistamine
reduce swelling in the nasal passages caused by common cold or allergic rhinitis decongestants
oxymetazoline (Afrin) decongestant
inflammation of the mucosa membranes of the nose rhinitis
stimulate receptors within the tracheobrachial tree to relax and dilate the airway passages bronchodilator
allow greater volume of air to be exchanged and improve oxygenation bronchodilator
Albuterol (proventil, Vomax) bronchodilator
used for obstructive airway disease; aerosol, oral forms, and parenteral corticosteroids
used in patients with severe asthma and COPD corticosteroids
direct effect on relaxation of smooth muscle, enhance effect of beta adrenergic bronchodilators and inhibit inflammatory response corticosteroid
used to suppress a cough by acting on the cough center of the brain antitussives
used to treat dry hacking nonproductive cough only reduces effects of the cough antitussives
Codeine, Diphenhydramine (Diphen, Tusstat) antitussives
reduces thickness and stickiness of pulmonary secretions by acting directly on the mucus plugs to dissolve them mucolytics
acetylcysteine (mucomyst) mucolytic
liquefy mucus by stimulating the natural lubricant fluids from the bronchial glands expectorant
guafenesin (robitussin) expectorant
enhance the output of respiratory tract fluid; relieve of dry, nonoproductive cough and mucus build up in the respiratory tract guafenesin (expectorant)
interfere with bacterial enzyme system nitrofurantoin (urinary anti-infective)
not effective against microorganisms in the blood or tissues outside of the urinary tract nitrofurantoin (urinary anti-infective)
can cause urine discoloration nitrofurantoin
treat allergy symptoms, also motion sickness, insomnia, and other nonallergic reactions antihistamines
Loratadine (claritin) antihistamine
reduce swelling in the nasal passages caused by common cold or allergic rhinitis decongestants
oxymetazoline (Afrin) decongestant
inflammation of the mucosa membranes of the nose rhinitis
stimulate receptors within the tracheobrachial tree to relax and dilate the airway passages bronchodilator
allow greater volume of air to be exchanged and improve oxygenation bronchodilator
Albuterol (proventil, Vomax) bronchodilator
used for obstructive airway disease; aerosol, oral forms, and parenteral corticosteroids
used in patients with severe asthma and COPD corticosteriods
direct effect on relaxation of smooth muscle, enhance effect of beta adrenergic bronchodilators and inhibit inflammatory response corticosteroid
used to suppress a cough by acting on the cough center of the brain antitussives
used to treat dry hacking nonproductive cough only reduces effects of the cough antitussive
Codeine, Diphenhydramine (Diphen, Tusstat) antitussive
reduces thickness and stickiness of pulmonary secretions by acting directly on the mucus plugs to dissolve them mucolytics
acetylcysteine (mucomyst) mucolytic
liquefy mucus by stimulating the natural lubricant fluids from the bronchial glands expectorant
guafenesin (robitussin) expectorants
enhance the output of respiratory tract fluid; relieve of dry, nonoproductive cough and mucus build up in the respiratory tract guafenesin (expectorant)
pertains to hormones and glands that make and secrete hormones in the bloodstream which affect distant organs endocrine system
used for type 2 diabetes insulin
hormone required for glucose transport to the cells; produced in the beta cells in the pancreas insulin
key regulator of metabolism insulin
required for entry of glucose into skeletal and heart muscle and fat; helps with protein and fat metabolism insulin
not required for glucose transport into the brain, kidney, GI or liver tissue insulin
used by most patients; less allergic reactions than beef or pork biosynthetic human insulin
Humalog rapid-acting insulin
Humulin R short-acting insulin
Humulin N intermediate- acting insulin
Lantus long-acting insulin
treat type 2 diabetes mellitus oral antidiabetic agent
decrease hepatic glucose production biguanides (oral antidiabetic agent)
metformin biguanidea (oral antidiabetic agent0
lower blood glucose by stimulating release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas and diminish glucose production and metabolism of insulin by liver sulfonylureas (oral antidiabetic agent)
glipizide sulfonylureas (oral antidiabetic agent)
biguanide and sulfonylureas oral antidiabetic agents
treat hypoglycemic reactions in patients with diabetes mellitus antihypoglycemic agent
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas that breaks down glycogen to glucose, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels; aids in converting amino acids to glucose glucagon
depends on presence of glycogen for action antihypoglycemic agent
used when thyroid hormones are not being produced or are not produced on sufficient quantities to meet the body's needs thyroid replacement hormones
levothyroxine thyroid replacement hormone
thyroid hormone antagonists antithyroid medicines
block the action of excessive formation of thyroid hormones antithyroid medicine
iodine 131 antithyroid agent
destroy hyperactive thyroid tissue iodine 131
block synthesis of T3 and T4 propylthiouracil (PTU)and methimazole (antithyroid medicines)
adrenocorticosteroids glucocorticoids
regulate carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism glucocorticoid
used for anti inflammatory and anti allergenic properties glucocorticoid
They DONT cure disease, but relieve symptoms of RA, lupus, immunosuppression, shock, etc. glucocorticoids
may cause masking of infection, elevated serum glucose, fever, malaise, electrolyte imbalance, behavioral changes, slow healing wounds and infection glucocorticoid
betamethasone glucorticoid
steroids that cause the kidneys to retain sodium and water mineralocorticoids
given with glucocorticoids to patients with adrenolcortical insufficiency mineralocorticoids
fludrocortisones (Florinef) mineralocorticoid
various agents affecting growth or function of the reproductive organs, the development sex characteristics, and behavioral patterns reproductive health agent
reproductive organs gonads
steroids that cause feminizing effects (breast development, voice quality, and broader pelvis) estrogen
naturally released from ovaries and decreased in menopause estrogen
relieve hot flashs symptoms in menopause, contraceptive, hormone replacement after oophorectomy, osteoporosis, slow down prostatoc cancer, and some types of breast cancer, severe acne estrogen
ovary removal estrogen
normal side effects: weight gain, edema, breast tenderness, nausea estrogen
clot formation in the vessels thrombophlebitis
Estradiol (Estrace, Estrogel) estrogen
steroids regulating endometrial and myometrial function progestins
used for oral contraceptive, secondary amenorrhea, uterine bleeding, endometriosis estrogen
uterus tissue cancer endometriosis
absence of menstruation amenorrhea
steroid hormone that produce masculizing effects androgens
testosterone androgen
dominant male sex hormone testosterone
responsible for normal growth and development of male sex organs and sex characteristics androgen
used to treat hypogonadism, eunichism, androgen deficiency, breast cancer in postmenopausal women androgen
deficiency in secretion of the ovary or testes androgen
undeveloped male sex organs hypogonadism
used to treat cancer causing agents immunologic medication
from research that indicates that cell membrane receptors control cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis, and cell death that are integral to the growth and spread of cancer targeted anti-cancer agents
new blood vessel growth angiogenisis
used to kill cancer cells chemotherapy
side effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neutropenia, unable to fight infection, anemia, sensitivity to hot and cold, GI upset chemotherapy
low white blood count neutropenia
bond with DNA; eradication of malignant cells Alkylating agents
cisplatin alkylating agents
cell specific in inhibiting cell division natural products
Vinca Alkaloids (vincristine)- periwinkle plant natural products
methotrexate (MTX) antimetabolites
inhibit key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways of DNA and RNA synthesis antimetabolites
bleomycin antineoplastic antibiotics
bind to DNA, prevent cell replication antineoplastic antibiotic
ethinyl estradiol hormones
used in malignancies of sexual organs hormone
digestive tract including mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines gastrointestinal
reduce acidity of gastric contents by buffering the hydrochloric acid to a lower hydrogen ion concentration antacids
1 or 2 level of PH of gastric contents
neutralize gastric acid antacids
Mylanta, Maalox, Di-Gel antacids
decrease volume of hydrochloric acid secretion and increase pH of gastric secretions during day and night histamine-receptor antagonists
cimetadine (tagamet), famotadine (Pepcid), Ranitidine (Zantac) histamine-receptor antagonists
used to treat GERD, duodenal ulcers, and prevent stress ulcers histamine- receptor antagonists
inhibit gastric secretion by inhibiting the gastric acid pump of the stomach's parietal cells proton pump inhibitors
used to treat severe esophagitis, GERD, gastric and duodenal ulcers, hypersecretory disorders proton pump inhibitors
common cause of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) Pylori
omeprazole (Prilosec), pantoprazole (Protonix) proton pump inhibitors
inflammation of the esophagus esophagitis
between stomach and duodenum pylori
used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), biliary spasm, mild ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, infant colic, PUD, antispasmodic agent
increased motility of the intestines IBS
gallbladder spasms biliary spasm
inflammation of large intestine and rectum ulcerative colitis
inflammation of a herniation in the stomach, small intestine, colon diverticulitis
inflammation of the pancreas pancreatitis
applied to eyelids or placed in the space between the eyelids and the eyeball otic/ opthalmic preparations
reduce intraocular pressure in the eyes in patients with glaucomas, and preop pr postop surgery osmotic agents
glycerin (Osmoglyn), mannitrol (osmitrol) osmotic agent
inhibit biosynthesis of prostaglandins anti-inflammatory ophthalmic agents
responsible for an increase in intraocular inflammation and pressure prostanglandins
flurbprofen sodium, keterolac tromethamine anti- inflammatory ophthalmic agents
idoxuridine , trifluridine (Viroptic) ophthalmic antiviral agent
used to treat herpes simplex keratitis ophthalmic antiviral agent
treat superficial eye infections or prophylaxis against gonorrhea infection in the eyes of newborns ophthalmic antibacterial agent
bacitracin, gentamicin ophthalmic antibacterial agent
prevention against disease prophylaxis
ocular herpes herpes simplex keratitis
Natamycin (Natacyn) ophthalmic antifungal agents
Created by: jdwc0820
 

 



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