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Organizational Management

What does Scientific Management refer to? Refers to the most efficient way of doing things (elimination of variability in the workplace; a factory setting)
What is Administrative Theory? Believes there is a 'best way' of managing people to do what you want them to do
What does the Human Relations School believe? You need to treat people as people and not as machines
What is Theory X? You can tell what people want and use it to motivate them. If you do not constantly motivate them they will be lazy and not work hard.
What is Theory Y? Believes that people are self-motivated and want to be there. People want to leave the structure of the organization.
What does the decision making school believe? Believes in a bounded reality. In order to be effective managers, people need to be able to understand the other decisions that are being made within the organization.
What is the contingency approach? There is a need to take into account all situation factors
What is Open Systems Theory? The organization is a market, and there are internal systems of economic rationality
What is the Competitive Values Framework? This framework aims to find a balance between the open systems model and Human Relations and Rational goals (avoid extremes and try to balance combinations of management thought)
What is the law of Requisite Variety? To understand complex environments you have to have a complex understanding of though (need a lot of different frameworks). You can only understand something as complex as yourself.
What is the problem with Managing to Execute? Execution is important but if your organization is not also growing you will get stuck, managers need to be able to adapt to keep the company growing.
Why is it important to Manage to Learn? Being able to learn means your company will be able to innovate and grow.
What is the psychological contract? The relationship between an employer and employee specifically concerning mutual expectations of inputs and outputs
What are the 3 types of violations of the psychological contract? 1) Inadvertent 2) Disruption 3) Breach
What is an inadvertent breach of psychological contract? A person is willing and able to act (an accidental misunderstanding)
What is a disruption of the psychological contract? A person is willing but unable to act (changing circumstances make it impossible)
What is a breach of the psychological contract? A person is unwilling but able to act (breaking a promise on purpose)
Who is responsible for a breach of the psychological contract? The people involved can make choices regarding contracts being made, the situation and the organizational structure itself may also make problems as well as the job itself
What factors increase perceptions of violations of the psychological contract? 1) a history of past violations 2) a lack of relationship between parties 3) external factors (turbulent business markets) 4) organizational crisis 5) little value in the relationship
What are the responses available when a psychological contract is breached? 1) Terminate relationship 2) voice complaints 3) silence, do nothing 4) Sabotage, neglect
What is perception? How people select, organize and interpret interactions to give meaning to the environment
What is salience? What stands out to you when you interpret the world
What is 'ground'? Anything that blends into the background when you perceive the world
What are the 3 factors that influence perception? 1) the person - their attitudes, motives, interest, etc... 2) the target - salience, motion, proximity 3) the situation - time, setting, social setting
What is attribution theory? Whether behavior was caused by internal or external factors: 1. Distinctiveness (how often do they do this in other situations) 2. consensus (how often to other people act like this) 3. Consistency (have they done this in the past)
What is social identity theory? 1. see each others in terms of social categories 2.assess the relative worth of people by comparing 3. perceive and respond to the world in the context of social identity 4. the higher the degree of similarity between people the better they communicate
What is the Pygmalion Effect? You behave how people expect you to behave (if you are seen as an 'A' student you will continue to behave like an 'A' student and therefore get 'A's) Self-fulfilling prophecy
There are many perception errors. What is a Fundamental Attribution Error? The emphasis you put on internal v. external factors. There is a tendency to blame a person rather than the circumstances
There are many perception errors. What is self-serving bias? when we mess up we blame other stuff in order to preserve our self-esteme
There are many perception errors. What is selective perception? we are predisposed to pick out certain information and ignore others
There are many perception errors. What is the halo effect? our perception of someone is based on one or two initial observations
There are many perception errors. What is contrast (or recency) effect? perceptions are based off comparisons (if you have one amazing employee they set the bar)
There are many perception errors. What is projection? putting your feelings of internal circumstances on other people (projecting your attitude)
There are many perception errors. What is stereotyping? perceiving someone from a certain category as belonging in a category (rather than as an individual)
There are many perception errors. What is central tendency? tendency to avoid extremes and rate people in the middle
There are many perception errors. What is perceptual defense? when your body is over stimulated and you shut down and stop paying attention
There are many perception errors. What are implicit persons theories? if you know about personality types you are likely to slot people into them
What is personality? Stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine interactions with others. Can be based on genetics, the environment, and situation factors.
What are emotions? Intense feelings directed at someone or something
What is self-perception? Self-awareness is the ability to seek feedback from others and to disclose ones own feelings and thoughts.
What is the open/free area? Known by others, known by self
What is the blind spot? Known by others, unknown by self
What is the hidden area? Unknown by others, known by self
What is the unknown area? Unknown by others, unknown by self
Individual behaviour can be based on a variety of factors. What are they? 1. culture 2. work groups 3. job 4. organization
What is the big 5 personality test? 1. conscientiousness 2. extroversion 3. agreeableness 4. neurotic-ism 5. openness to experience
What is the Myer Briggs Personality Test? 1. extroversion v. introversion 2. sensing v. intuitive 3. thinking v. feeling 4. perceiving v. judging
What are the drawbacks of personality tests? 1. self-reporting bias 2. construct validity - does it measure what they think it does 3. reliability can be low
What is neurotic-ism? the less negative thinking, less hyper-vigilant - higher job and life satisfaction and lower stress levels
What is Extroversion? better interpersonal skills and social dominance, higher performance and advanced leadership
What is Openness? increased learning, more creative, flexible, and autonomous, enhanced performance, leadership and adaptive to change
What is Agreeableness? better liked, more compliant and conforming, higher performance, lower levels of deviant behaviour
What is Conscientiousness? greater effort and persistence, more drive and discipline, better organized, higher performance and leadership
What is an external locus of control? the extent to which you believe forces beyond your control are at play; you blame the situation/other factors instead of yourself
What is an internal locus of control? the extent to which you believe forces beyond your control are at play; you blame yourself instead of the situation/other factors
What is a Type A personality? Impatient, restless, competitive, aggressive, under time pressure, always trying to accomplish several things at once
What is a Type B personality? relaxed, looking for the experience, not about the end goal
What is the tolerance for ambiguity? the tendency to percieve an ambiguous situation as desirable
What is a core self-evaluation? the degree to which an individual likes or dislikes themselves, whether the person sees himself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of the environmnet or powerless
What is Machiavellian-ism? a pragmatic, emotionally distant, power player who believes that the ends justify the means (manipulative, deceptive, unethical, and persuade more than are persuaded)
What is Narcissism? the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose attitude and sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration and a sense of entitlement
What is Psychopathy? prone to deviant behaviour due to high levels of thrill seeking, impulsive and selfish, tend to display superficial charm, a lack of emotion and resourcefulness
What are interactionist models? how the environment interacts with your personality to determine behaviour
What is the conditional reasoning approach? Dispositional motivation: fear of failure v. opportunity to learn (dispositions are mental maps from which you draw information to understand present circumstances)
What is the Cognitive Affective Personality? People search for dominant ques, dependent on a variety of factors you can activate if-than representations of the situation guiding your actions. Difference cues will activate different behaviours
What is emotional affect? broad range of emotional, feeling, tone, mood and its external manifestations
What are moods? having the same reaction or feeling towards multiple stimuli
What is Emotional Intelligence? The ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotions to discriminate amond them , and to use this information to guide your thinking and actions
What is MSCEIT? measures emotional abilities in perceiving, understanding, and managing emotions (self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship management)
What are the limits to EI? 1. too vague (no clear idea of the concept) 2. EI cannot be measured 3. not a valid concept: mix of personality and IQ tests
What is emotional labour? the requirement of a job that employees display certain emotions towards customers (faking smiles) felt v. displayed emotion
How do women differ from men in terms of emotions? Women are more social, have higher EI and more positive emotions whereas men tend to be emotionally detached and have lower EI
What is Active Events Theory? Your emotions predict your reaction (links to performance) and satisfaction) Emotional contagion (certain circumstances bring out the worst emotion in you)
What are the problems with negative workplace emotions? If there is bullying in the workplace peopl aren't stupid they will see it and get scared too. When dealing with this problem you have to address it with everyone - not just the people immediately involved
What do you need to know in order to deal with difficult people? 1. create a rich picture of the person 2. remember your goals 3. stage teh encounter 4. follow up
What is the learning process? a learning organization is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behaviour to reflect knowledge and insights
What are the core components of the adult learning cycle? psychological contract, experience based, personal application , self direction, integrates learning adn living
What are teh 4 phases of learning 1. concrete experience 2. reflective observation 3. abstract conceptualization 4. active experimentaion
What are the 4 learning styles? 1. diverger 2. assimilators 3. convergers 4. accomodators
What is the diverger learning style? tend to view problems from many different angles, tend to have broad cultural interests, their approach to problem solving focus on observation and data collection (imaginative, sensitive create more creative solutions to a problem)
What is the assimilator learning style? able to understand abstract concepts, put into logical and concise forms, focus less on poepl and more on concepts
What is the convergers learning style? able to make decisions based on hard analytically data. prefer dealing with technical tasks than social issues; tend to prefer lab experiments
What is the accomodators learning style? tend to solve problems with hands-on experience, prefer to rely on the analyis of others instead of their own analysis. enjoy implementing new ideas and concpets; dont mind taking calculated risks
What is adaptive learning? also known as double-loop thinking (change the way you think instead of changing what you do)
What is generative learning? also known as single loop learning (fixing problems as they arise)
What is the learning organization? The only sustainable competitive advantage is an organizations ability to learn (you cannot force commitment - it is generated by a drive for self-improvement - look at the org as a whole
What is team level cognition? The collection of knowledge possessed by each member of the team and the collective awareness of who knows what. Involves coordination and tacit knowledge
What is stress? the experience of opportunities or threats that people perceive as important and also perceive that they may not be able to deal with effectively
Why do people perceive stress differently? 1. personalities 2. abilities 3. experiences 4. care-giver status 5. cognitive appraisal (opportunity v. threat , importance, uncertainty about decision)
What are some sources of stress? self-defeating activities (procrastination), soft addictions (internet, snacks etc)
What are some consequences of stress? organizational turnover, absenteeism, greater use of EAP lower commitments, worklife interfierence, health and relationship strain, increased healthcare costs, decreased fertiltiy rates
How can people cope with stress? role enhancement, boundary permeability , role overload, exercise, social time, supportive partner, learning to say no, prioritization, understanding the appraisal process
What is resiliency? the ability to withstand pressure and emerge stronger because of the experience
What is motivation? the intensity, direction, focus, and persistence that people have in order to achieve a goal
What is Theory X? Employees are cogs in a machine, they don't want to work so you have to stay on them all the time
What is Theory Y? Employees are self motivating
What are extrinsic motivators? Pay, bonuses, trips (external to the job)
What are intrinsic motivators? intrinsic to the job, internal benefits, things you value
What is the needs theory of motivation? If you want to motivate someone find out what they need and offer it to them as a reward. Only an unfulfilled need will motivate. What people perceive as a need is important
What is Maslow's Pyramid of Needs? 1.physiological 4.esteem 5.self-actualization
What is Hertzberg's Hygiene theory (of needs)? There are basic things that you need by there are diminishing returns when you offer them as a motivator (when people don't need them any more they stop motivating)
What is Aldefer's Theory of need? ERG - Existence, Relatedness, Growth
What is McClelland's Theory of need? Need for Power, Need for Affiliation, Need for Achievement
What is McClelland's need for power? The need to influence and lead people. Positive - socialized power (helping to bring everyone up) Negative - personalized power (putting yourself above everyone else
What is McClellands need for affiliation? Desire for friendly and close relationships. Positive - Affiliate Interests (being friendly but also being honest about what goes wrong - don't withhold criticism) Negative - Affiliate Assurance (need for friends to the point of avoiding confrontation)
What is McClelland's need for achievement? Need to accomplish goals and excel, take calculated risks, task oriented
What are Process theories of motivation? the process people go through to get from an unmotivated state to a motivated state
What is self-efficacy? the individual's belief that they can perform the task, the higher your self-efficacy the more confident you will be in your abilities
What are some things that impact your self-efficacy? enactive mastery (experience), vicariousness (model after other people), verbal persuasion (self-talk), arousal (self-confidence)
What is expectancy theory? Says motivation is a process, the process has three components: expectancy, instrumentality, and valiance
In expectancy theory, what is expectancy? The belief that the effort is related to the performance
In expectancy theory, what is instrumentality? The belief that the performance is related to the rewards
In expectancy theory, what is valiance? The belief that the reward has value (only the rewards you actually want will motivate you)
What is Goal Setting Theory? A goal is an objective aim or action to attain a specific level of attainment
What is a learning goal? focus on attaining new knowledge
What is a Performance goal? focus on attaining an outcome
What is a proximal goal? short term goals
What are distal goals? long term primary goals
What are absolute goals? fixed standards
What are normative goals? relative attainment to others
Why are goals important? they direct your attention, energy, help you deal with failure, develop skills or abilities you wouldn't normally have
What are SMART goals? S.pecific M.easurable A.ttainable R.esults oriented T.imely
What is Equity Theory and fair competition? Comparing your inputs and outcomes to others. Be clear about what is happening, Perceptions of inequality are demotivating (doesn't matter what is actually happening, it is about what people think is happening)
What is Fair Process? Perceptions matter. Distributive Justice - are things distributed fairly, Procedural Justice - the procedure's construct validity, Interactional Justice - managing relationships fairly
What is operant conditioning? a type of conditioning where desired/voluntary behaviour leads to reward or avoids punishment (pay cheque)
What is Reinforcement? Is used to increase the likelihood of a certain behaviour
What is positive reinforcement? following a desired response with something pleasant
What is negative reinforcement? terminate or withdraw something unpleasant in response to the desired behaviour
What is positive punishment? cause something unpleasant circumstance to eliminate negative behaviour
What is negative punishment? remove something pleasant to eliminate negative behaviour
What is extinction? eliminate any reinforcements or punishments that are maintaining behaviours (it is only a matter of time before motivation doesn't help or makes the desired behaviour decrease)
What is a schedule of behaviour? the pattern of reinforcement used, a random schedule is the most powerful
What are some limitations to rewards and punishments? 1. consider individuals before designing a rewards system 2. consider diversity 3. consider impact of rewards 4. be sure to link rewards to performance
What is cognitive evaluation theory? if you take something that was intrinsically motivating and add an extrinsic motivator you can actually decrease motivation
What has the mind shift been in motivation? design jobs with mastery (you can get good at something), autonomy (give peopl freedom) and purpose (people want to work for a reason/purpose) and they will be more intrinsically motivating
What are some job characteristics of jobs that foster motivation? skill variety, task identity (seeing the finished product), task significance (see the impact), autonomy, feedback
What are some of the critical psychological states that foster motivation? experience meaningful work, experience responsibility (succeed or fail on their own), knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
What are some of the personal/work outcomes of fostering motivation? high internal work motivations, high quality work performance, high satisfaction with work, low worker turnover rates
What is the process model of communication? Choose a message. Encode it. Choose a channel. Receiver decodes message and provides feedback.
What is the transactional model of communication? the process by which two people are communicating and what matters is building a shared field of experience. As someone is taking in information they send off signals and what is observed by the speaker changes what/how they say it.
What is noise in communication? the background (typing, facebook, time of day, what is happening outside)
What is the arc of distortion? What they hear v. what you said (the difference is the arc of distortion)
What is an example of filtering? political correctness
What is selective perception? tendency to see things differently
What is information overload? brain dump/can't absorb (like this class?)
How is the best way to communicate under stress? Speak clearly, be aware of your non-verbal communication, think about what/how you are going to say it!
What are some differences between how men and women communicate? Men tend to emphasize status (I statements). Women tend to create connections (we statements).
How should you chose your communication channel? 1. ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously 2. rapid feedback 3. personal (ability to tailor message)
What are kinetics? body movements and gestures
What are proxemics? how close or far you are standing from someone
What do low context cultures consider when communicating? words, gestures, and tone
What do high context cultures consider when communicating? vocabulary, choice, phrasing, history, posture, environment, social status, words, gestures, and tone
What is Passive Listening? If you are awake and your ears work properly, you can listen passively. It does not require any special effort. You hear what your teacher says and you might be able to tell the difference between major and minor points of the lecture, but that is it
What is Active Listening? Requires the listener to try to understand the speakers understanding of the experience without the listeners own interpretation intruding on the other person.
What is involved in active listening? 1. intensity (focus) 2. empathy 3. acceptance 4. responsibility for completeness (ask questions)
What are some things that influence people's listening styles? Attitudes, beliefs and predispositions about who, what, when, where, why and how of the information, its reception and its encoding
What is rational listening? it is not about what they are saying - looking for rational ques
What is transactional listening? get to the point - listening because you want something from them
What is critical listening? picking out the info you need and using it to your advantage
What is analytically listening? searching for more info, seeking out more info
What are elements of non-verbal listening? body movements, facial expressions (kinetics and proxemics)
What are some challenges associated with email? it is a lot harder to send emotions via email and as such emails are good for low context messages but bad for high context messages
What is the neutrality effect? positive emotions come across as neutral
What is the negativity effect? neutral emotions come across as negative
What is a team? A collection of individuals who are interdependent in their tasks and who share responsibilities for outcomes. They see themselves as an internal social entity within a larger social system and manage their relationship across social boarders
How do you make teams work? Teamwork is about learning - don't shy away from conflict. As long as it is about the project at hand it will be helpful. Personal conflict causes problems.
What is Power? The capacity A has to influence B in order to get what A wants. Every relationship has a power dynamic and both parties do have some power.
What is Dependency? B's relationship to A when A possesses something B needs
What is the general dependency postulate? The greater B's dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. Dependency is inversely related to the alternative sources of supply. Dependency is increased when the resource is 1. important 2. scarce 3. non-substitutable
What is coercive power? school yard bully, threats and fear-based
What is reward power? give $ for a job well done
What is legitimate power? I'm the boss and that is how it is
What is expert power? I'm the person who knows the most so there
What is referent power? Acting like someone you want to be like
What is Information power? someone who knows everything about everyone
What are some influence tactics? 1. rational persuasion 2. inspirational appeals 3. consultations 4. ingratiation (complements) 5. personal appeals 6. exchange 7. coalition tactics 8. pressure 9. legitimate tactics
What is a 'pushing style'? assertive persuasion, reward/punishment, tends to produce compliance rather than commitment
What is a 'pulling style'? participation and trust, sharing a common vision and getting people to buy into a campaign
How do you deal with bullying in the work place? tends to have an underlying power dynamic, you have to deal with everyone in the workplace whether they were directly involved or not, you need to take away the dependency factor to change the power dynamic
What are the 3 responses to power? 1. Compliance 2. Commitment 3. Resistance
Which form of power is easiest to use? Coercive power: legitimate power and reward power is easiest to implement but not objective
What is the best form of power to use? Best (most commitment) from referent or expert power
How can you persuade people effectively? 1. establish credibility 2. frame goals in the common good 3. reinforce with vivid language 4. connect emotionally
What is the difference between content and relationship goals? If you try to force your influence, you may succeed in getting the content you want but if they feel you are taking advantage of them it will ruin the relationship in the future
What can/should be done about office politics? Politicing happens in organizations and it is not bad: needs to be resources in place to help people be good at politicing, needs to be opportunities distributed fairly
When is conflict good? Functional and cognitive conflicts are good because they add to group goals and develop ideas
When is conflict bad? Disfunctional and Affective conflicts are bad because they are about emotions and take away from the group's goals, they are about people not projects
What are different ways in which people deal with conflict? 1. forcing (focusing on your interests) 2. Avoiding (ignore conflict) 3. Problem Solving (find middle ground) 4. Compromising (Mutual losses can be as good as mutual gains) 5. Yielding (giving in)
What is a negotiation? A process in which two or more people exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them
What is distributive bargaining? Negotiation seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources (win - lose situation)
What is Integrative Bargaining? negotiating to find broader options that can benefit both parties
How to negotiate effectively? 1. develop a strategy 2. define the ground rules 3. clarify/justify 4. bargaining and problem solving 5. closure and implementation
Why is being open so important in a negotiation? Openness is important for impacting the perceptions, make sure you don't miss an opportunity
What is Fisher and Ury's theory of negotiation? 1. separate people from problems 2. focus on interests not positions 3. invent options for mutual gain 4. insist on objective criteria
What results from successful negotiation? 1. a wise agreement 2. efficient (don't waste time) 3. improved relationship
How do North Americans view conflict? Conflict can be good, it is necessary, tend to prefer problem solving approaches that yield win-win scenarios, expect negotiations to lead to legal (impersonal contracts)
How do Asian cultures view conflict? Avoid conflict, try to find compromise, ignore conflict rather than make it public, focus less on legal contracts and more on the development of personal relationships
What causes personality conflict? misunderstandings based on age, gender, culture, or race (can be caused by intolerance, prejudice, or discrimination) Can also be a matter of perceived inequalities (misunderstandings, rumors, blaming people for mistakes) etc...
How should you try to manage a personality conflict? 1. find areas of mutual respect for both parties 2. try to help them find respect for the job 3. document everything 4. get HR involved 5. don't take sides
How does gender impact negotiations? Men view negotiations as a separate event, use dialogue to persuade. Women view negotiations as a part of the relationship, want everyone to feel empowered, use dialogue to achieve understanding
Who are leaders do? Leaders are people who establish the direction for the group, gain commitment, and motivate and influence people to achieve goals. Leaders and Managers are different
What do managers do? engage in day to day activities, exhibit supervisory roles, administer subsystems, act within established culture, use transactional motivation, relies on control strategies, follows status quo
What do leaders do? formulate long-term reform objectives, exhibit leading behaviours, innovates the org, creates vision and meaning, uses empowering strategies, transformational strategies, transformational influence, challenges the status quo
What is the trait based theory of leadership? Leaders can be selected based on specific traits that all leaders have in common. You could look at a person and their resume and see if they would be a good leader
What are some problems with traits based leadership theory? Traits don't always work, straight intelligence is often ineffective in leadership. EI may help with leadership....
What is behavioural leadership? you can train people to be leaders, if you can figure out what good leaders have in common.
What are some challenges to behavioural leadership? 1. structure of the environment 2. personal connections 3. contingencies/situational relationships
What is Fielder's theory of leadership? Pick your leader based on the task and the team members. Leadership styles tend to be fixed, look at the situation and pick the best suited leader
What is Hershey Blanchard's Leadership Theory? Examine followers and pick a leadership style based on how motivated they are. Leaders behave differently depending on how their followers behave
Based on Hershey Blanchard's Leadership Theory, if employees are able and willing what style of leadership should be used? Delegating Leadership
Based on Hershey Blanchard's Leadership Theory, if employees are able and unwilling what style of leadership should be used? Participating Leadership
Based on Hershey Blanchard's Leadership Theory, if employees are unable and willing what style of leadership should be used? Selling Leadership
Based on Hershey Blanchard's Leadership Theory, if employees are unable and unwilling what style of leadership should be used? Telling Leadership
What are the components of House's Path-Goal Expectancy Theory 1. leadership behaviours 2. employee basis 3. environmental factors 4. leadership effectiveness
Based on House's Path-Goal Expectancy Theory what are leadership behaviours? path-learning role, achievement oriented, supportive, interactive, group oriented, value based
Based on House's Path-Goal Expectancy Theory what are employee bases? locus of control, task ability, need for achievement, experience
Based on House's Path-Goal Expectancy Theory what are environmental factors? task structure, group dynamics
Based on House's Path-Goal Expectancy Theory what is effective leadership? employee motivation, satisfaction, performance
What is transactional leadership motivates followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements (management side, motivate people to accomplish tasks)
What is transformational leadership? the process of changing major assumptions and attitudes in the organization (leaders as charismatic people)
What is charismatic leadership? leaders who critically examine the status quo with a view to develop and articulate a vision for the organization and then lead people to achieve those goals
What is the dark side of charisma? These people are great for the organization but tend to dominate. Once they succeed in creating their new vision they can't settle down, they want to know the whole structure down and build it up again
What is humble leadership? Accepting that the organization has reached the desired state of awesome and being able to take a step back and let others manage it
What is authentic leadership? No matter the leadership style you use, be authentic. People have to take a leap of faith and they won't follow someone who isn't real.
What are some traits of authentic leaders? 1. self-aware 2. balanced 3. have relationship transparency 4. internationalized moral perspective
What traits do effective followers have? 1. obey commands 2. commit to a purpose 3. good at self-management 4. build their competencies to maximize effectiveness 5. credible and willing to change
What are the steps in a rational decision making model? 1. Identify the problem 2. establish decision making criteria 3. weigh decision criteria 4. generate alternatives 5. evaluate alternatives 6. choose best alternative 7. implement 8. evaluate
What are problems with the rational decision making model? 1. don't happen often 2. it is a long process 3. only works in stable and structured environments
What is the Garbage Can Model? Solutions, People, Problems, and Opportunities swirling around until they sort of all connect (think streams model)
What are some decision making biases? 1. Anchoring (first impressions) 2. Availability (info you have) 3. Over-confidence 4. Bounded awareness (too much to think about) 5. Emotional Involvement 6. Self-serving reasoning (success is what we do)
What is Vroom's Leader Participation Model? A matrix used to arrive at the appropriate level of employee participation for the decision
What is groupthink? Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
How do you avoid groupthink? 1. encourage people to express doubts 2. play devil's advocate 3. adopt perspective of other stakeholders 4. bring qualified outsiders 5. sleep on it
When does organizational design become a problem? When it does not take into account the people working for the organization and their habits/sub-structures
What is organizational structure? Refers to the roles, authority, and communications that determine the coordination of tech and people within the organization. There are formal structures but despite your best efforts, informal structures will arise organically and should be encouraged
Why is it bad to try and limit informal organizational structures? People will do them anyway. If you reward people, they will find ways to improve and make you more money. If you punish people, they will find ways to cost you money
What is Galbraith's Star Model? A pictograph of organizational development that looks like a star and says you need to start by considering your strategy, processes and people before working about structure
What is a mechanistic structure? rigid and bureaucratic with strict rules and narrowly defined tasks, top-down communications, and centrally made decisions
What is organic structure? flexible decentralized networks with broadly defined tasks, organic structures are flexible and respond to broadly defined tasks
What is hierarchy? the distribution of authority among organizational positions
What is centralization? the extent to which authority is centralized at the top
What is decentralization? the extent to which authority to make decisions is given to people closest to the decision
What is complexity? number of levels (vertical differentiation) and number of departments (horizontal differentiation)
What is specialization? the extent to which work is performed in a uniform manor
What is routine technology? tech designed for little task variety and formalized standardized tasks
What is formalization? extent to which there are explicit rules or policies that govern activities
What is the span of control? # of employees who report to a single manager
What is the functional organization structure? Divided by function (accounting, HR, PR, etc...)
What are the pros of a functional structure? 1. people get good at their jobs 2. people are valuable 3. people like it 4. easy to understand
What are the cons of a functional structure? 1. function in silos 2. business is not efficient
What is a divisional organizational structure? Segmented based on product line, geography, demographics, etc... (Popular among multinationals) Appropriate when products differ substantially, the environment is dynamic, tech is non-routine, or when company values external effectiveness
What are the pros of a divisional structure? 1. functional representation 2. consumer focus 3. flexible/responsive
What are the cons of a divisional structure? 1. duplication of resources 2. loss of economies of scale 3. lack learning 4. difficult boundary management
What is the matrix organizational structure? allow companies to focus on both function and output. matrices are appropriate when there are scarce resources, pressure to produce 2 or more critical outputs, complex and uncertain environments
What are the pros of a matrix structure? 1. facilitates communication and coordination 2. addresses the disadvantages of functional or divisional structures
What are the cons of a matrix structure? 1. time consuming 2. employee motivation decreases 3. too many bosses 4. to many teammates 5. difficult to manage 6. adds red tape
What are horizontal organizations? flattening out the org with minimal levels of management and teams organized around key processes, appropriate in smaller orgs with short product cycles
What are the pros of horizontal organizations? 1. lower costs 2. increased communications 3.shared decision making 4. speed increased 5. responsiveness to customers 6. lower admin costs
What are the cons of horizontal organizations? 1. training costs 2. coordinate meetings 3. define key processes 4. markets could shift
What are networked Organizations? All about the networks and relationships between people... getting people to connect and share resources. Brokers who subcontract needed services to designers, suppliers, and producers linked by a strong IT system and open communication
What does the theory of networked idealists? people are connected by ideals, when people buy into an idea they commit to it
What is boundary theory? boundaries are physical, temporal, emotional, cognitive, or relational limits to define entities as separate from one another. Boundaries prevent info from flowing
What is the difference between differentiation and integration? be away people may have different ideas but the same goals
what is differentiation? the differences between cognitive and emotions organizations among managers in different departments and the differences in formal structure in these departments
What is integration? the behaviours and structures used by differentiated organized sub-units to coordinate activity
What is innovation? Finding better ways to do things. Involves encouraging creativity and managing to innovate. Creative people are effective, innovative, and perform well
What are some factors that foster creativity? 1. job complexity 2. time 3. clear objectives 4. recognize and reward creativity (reward failure too) 5. autonomy 6. participative leadership 7. diversity 8. diverse teams 9. psychological safety 10. flexible structures 11. contact with end users
What should you consider when trying to make effective decisions? 1. strategy 2. core competencies 3. competitive advantage 4. environmental complexity 5. technology 6. size
When you understand a simple environment and how it works what type of decision making structure works best? Mechanized Structure
When the environment is complex and difficult to understand which decision making structure is best? Organic structure
What is creativity? fuels innovation at the individual and group level, it the development of ideas about products, practices, and services that are novel and potentially useful to the organization
What is innovation? the implementation of new ideas at the individual, group, or org level. need to create a funnel of good ideas and turn them into a few key new products
What are some characteristics of creative people? 1. confidence 2. independent 3. tolerant of complexity 4. persistent 5. flexible 6. energetic
What do creative organizations need to do? create jobs with a level of complexity that will encourage people to do their best, give people time to be creative, reward creativity also means rewarding failure, psychological safety - ensuring people feel they can be themselves without fear
What is organizational culture? culture is like personality. It is only a problem if you are not aware of what the initial reaction will be
What are the aspects of culture that require 'uncovering'? 1. Artifacts (what you see at the surface) 2. Espoused beliefs and values (what people will tell you ) 3. Basic Underlying Assumptions (what everyone knows but no one will say)
What is socializing? "hazing" breaking someone down so that you can rebuild them as one of the organization
Where does work place culture come from? beliefs, values, assumptions, and learning experiences, new members being new perspectives
What is internal integration? getting everyone to buy in
What is external adoption? culture can be a barrier to entry if some people aren't comfortable
How is culture transmitted? 1. socializing 2. stories 3. symbols 4. jargon 5. rituals 6. statements of principle
Created by: alentini
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