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Rad Protection

board review

average u.s doses annual background dose= approx. 3mSv, average cxr= approx .1 mSv, average whole body CT=approx 10 mSv (Radiology Prep, p.230)
linear response is proportional to dose (Radiology Prep, p.231)
nonlinear response is not proportional to dose (Radiology Prep, p.231)
threshold a dose must be received before a response can occur (Radiology Prep, p.231)
nonthreshold no safe dose- even one photon can cause a response (Radiology Prep, p.231)
early effects appear a short time after exposure, usually as a result of high dose in short period of time, should not be seen in diagnostic radiology (Radiology Prep, p.231)
late effects can appear years after exposure: carcinogenesis, cataractogenesis, embryologic effect, lifespan shortening (Radiology Prep, p.231)
deterministic threshold, nonlinear, includes all early effects and some later effects (Radiology Prep, p.232)
stochastic no threshold, linear, genetic effects, and cancer (Radiology Prep, p.232)
types of DNA damage main chain, double-side rail break, main chain, single-rail break, main chain breakage, cross-linking, base damage, point mutations (Radiology Prep, p.235)
ways to reduce risk to recently fertilized ovum elective scheduling/10 day rule, patient questionnaire, posting (Radiology Prep, p.237)
acute radiation syndromes hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, CNS (Radiology Prep, p.241)
stages of acute radiation syndrome prodromal, latent, manifest illness, recovery or death (Radiology Prep, p.241)
beam restrictions reduces patient dose, reduces production of scattered radiation, improves image quality (Radiology Prep, p.250)
beam restrictor types aperture diaphragm, cone/cylinder, collimator (Radiology Prep, p.250)
mAs controls quantity- no effect on quality (Radiology Prep, p.252)
kV controls quality- affects quantity (Radiology Prep, p.252
less than 50 kV = .5mm Al equivalent (Radiology Prep, p.253)
50-70 kV = 1.5mm Al equivalent (Radiology Prep, p.253)
greater than 70 kV = 2.5mm Al equivalent (Radiology Prep, p.253)
gonadal shielding should be used if: the gonads lie in or within 5cm of the collimated field, the patient has reasonable reproductive potential, diagnostic objectives permit (Radiology Prep, p.255)
type of exposure switch must be dead man switch (Radiology Prep, p.263)
radiation protection rules time, distance, shielding (Radiology Prep, p.272)
primary beam protect from the useful beam (Radiology Prep, p.272)
secondary beam protect from scattered or leakage radiation (Radiology Prep, p.272)
roentgen measures ionization in air, measures x- or gamma radiation only, valid up to 3 MeV (Radiology Prep, p.281)
rad Gray (Radiology Prep, p.281)
rem Sievert (Radiology Prep, p.281)
Created by: meechthebeech91