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RadT 465

Radiation Protection

QuestionAnswer
Wavelike fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields. (Lange Prep, p. 225) Electromagnetic radiation
What aspects are part of the electromagnetic spectrum? (Lange Prep, p. 225) Visible light, microwaves, radio waves, x-rays, and gamma rays
What is the equation for velocity? (Lange Prep, p. 225) 3 x 10^8 m/s
The distance between two consecutive wave crests. (Lange Prep, p. 225) Wavelength
The number of cycles per second. (Lange Prep, p. 225) Frequency
Unit of frequency measurement is? (Lange Prep, p. 225) Hertz
Radiation that has the ability to break apart electrically neutral atoms is? (Lange Prep, p. 225) Ionizing radiation
Natural background radiation accounts for what percentage of radiation? (Lange Prep, p. 226) 68%
Occupational, fallout and nuclear energy plants account for what percent of radiation? (Lange Prep, p. 226) 5%
Medical radiation accounts for what percent of radiation? (Lange Prep, p. 226) 31%
High speed electron is accelerated toward a tungsten atom. The negative electron is attracted by a positive nucleus and pulled off course. The deflection is caused by braking and results in a loss of energy.(Lange Prep, p. 227) Bremsstrahlung radiation
Bremsstrahlung radiation accounts for what percentage of the x-ray beam? (Lange Prep, p. 227) 70-90%
High speed electron encounters a tungsten atom in the anode focal track and ejects a K shell electron. Higher energy electron fills that vacancy. K- shells have 69keV. (Lange Prep, p. 227) Characteristic radiation
Characteristic radiation comprises what percent of the x-ray beam? (Lange Prep, p. 227) 10-30%
Gradual decrease in exposure rate as ionizing radiation passes through tissues is? (Lange Prep, p. 227) Attenuation
A relatively low energy x-ray photon interacts with tissue and uses all the energy to eject an inner shell electron. An electron from above drops down to fill the vacancy and gives up a characteristic ray. It has a high atomic number. (Lange Prep, p. 228) Photoelectric effect
A high energy photon interacts with tissue and ejects an outer shell electron. It contributes to fog and is a radiation hazard to personnel. (Lange Prep, p. 228) Compton scatter
What type of radiation interaction is a major contributor to patient dose? (Lange Prep, p. 229) Photoelectric effect
Relationship directly related to the dose received? (Lange Prep, p. 230) Linear
Relationship effects are not proportional to the dose. Nonlinear relationship
The dose below which no harmful effects are likely to occur. (Lange Prep, p. 230) Threshold
The annual background dose is? (Lange Prep, p. 230) 3 mSv (300 mrem)
The average chest x-ray produces what dose? (Lange Prep, p. 230) 0.10 mSv (10 mrem)
The whole body dose for a CT exam is? (Lange Prep, p. 230) 10.0 mSv (1000 mrem)
No safe dose, even one photon can cause a response is? (Lange Prep, p. 231) Nonthreshold
Effects that occur randomly and are all or nothing. (Lange Prep, p. 231) Stochastic effects
What are characteristics of early effects? (Lange Prep, p. 231) Appear a short time after exposure, usually a result of a high dose in a short time period, should not be seen in diagnostic radiology
What are characteristics of late effects? (Lange Prep, p. 231) Can appear years after exposure; carcinogenesis, cataractogenesis embryologic effect, lifespan shortening
What is a deterministic risk? (Lange Prep, p. 232) Nonlinear dose responses and associated with a threshold dose below which no effect is observed.
Deterministic risk includes? (Lange Prep, p. 232) Threshold, nonlinear, all early effects and some late effects.
Stochastic risk includes? (Lange Prep, p. 232) No threshold, linear, genetic effects, cancer, includes more late effects
Cellular qualities made tissues more or less radiosensitive is what law? (Lange Prep, p. 233) Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau
What tissue cells are very radiosensitive? (Lange Prep, p. 233) Stem (undifferentiated or precursor) cells, young, immature cells, and highly mitotic cells
A number assigned to different types of ionizing radiations so their effects may be better determined. (Lange Prep, p. 233) Radiation weighting factor
The relative tissue radiosensitivity of the irradiated material is? (Lange Prep, p. 233) Tissue weighting factor
The product of absorbed dose and its radiation weighting factor. (Lange Prep, p. 233) Equivalent dose
Dose from radiation sources internal and/or external to the body and is expressed in rem is? (Lange Prep, p. 233) Effective dose equivalent
Radiation deposits energy as it passes through tissue is? (Lange Prep, p. 234) Linear energy transfer
Occurs when ionizing particle interacts directly with the key molecule or another critical enzyme or molecule is? (Lange Prep, p. 234) Direct effect
Direct effect occurs when what is high? (Lange Prep, p. 234) LET
Occurs when ionization takes place away from the DNA molecule in cellular water. (Lange Prep, p. 234) Indirect effect
Fetal irradiation during the first two weeks can cause? (Lange Prep, p. 237) Embryonic resorption or spontaneous abortion
How many days past the onset of menses should an abdominal/pelvic exam be scheduled? (Lange Prep, p. 238) 10 days
What are the syndromes of acute radiation? (Lange Prep, p. 241) Hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system
What are some symptoms of hematopoietic syndrome? (Lange Prep, p. 241) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased blood count, hemorrhage, infection
What are some symptoms of gastrointestinal syndrome? (Lange Prep, p. 241) Doses between 1000-10,000; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea blood changes, hemorrhage, death within 2 weeks
What are some symptoms of central nervous system? (Lange Prep, p. 241) Dose more than 5000 rad; collapse of circulatory system, vasculitis, meningitis, ataxia, shock, death within 3 days
Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea that occur 1 hour to 2 days following exposure is? (Lange Prep, p. 241) Prodromal stage
Symptoms disappear, the exposed individual seems healthy is? (Lange Prep, p. 242) Latent stage
Symptoms depend on the specific syndrome and last up to several months is? (Lange Prep, p. 242) Manifest illness stage
Individuals who do not recover will die within weeks or months of exposure; recovery can take weeks up to 2 years. For those who recover, long term effects are a concern is? (Lange Prep, p. 242) Death or recovery
What does beam restriction do? (Lange Prep, p. 250) Reduces patient dose, reduces production of scattered radiation, improves image quality
What are types of beam restrictors? (Lange Prep, p. 250) Aperture diaphragm, cone/cylinder, collimator
Collimators must be within what percent of the SID to be accurate and within the guidelines? (Lange Prep, p. 252) 2%
mAs controls quantity/quality? (Lange Prep, p. 252) Quantity
kVp controls quality/quantity? (Lange Prep, p. 252) Quality
What is the minimum filtration requirement? (Lange Prep, p. 254) 2.5 mm Al
Gonadal shielding should be used when? (Lange Prep, p. 255) The gonads lie in or within 5 cm of the collimated field; the patient has reasonable reproductive potential; diagnostic objectives permit it
What are some types of shields? (Lange Prep, p. 255) Flat, contact shields, shadow shields and contour contact shields
The consistency in exposure output during repeated exposures at a particular setting is? (Lange Prep, p. 261) Reproducibility
Output intensity must be constant when adjacent mA stations are used; with exposure times adjusted to maintain the same mAs, and any variation must not exceed 10%. (Lange Prep, p. 262) Linearity
Three phase equipment is measured with? (Lange Prep, p. 262) Synchronous spinning to or ascilloscope
The SSD for stationary fluoroscopic should be at least? (Lange Prep, p. 263) 15 inches
What type of exposure switches are used? (Lange Prep, p. 263) Deadman type
What are the cardinal rules of imaging? (Lange Prep, p. 269) Time, distance, and shielding
Leakage radiation must not exceed? (Lange Prep, p. 270) 100mR/hour when measured 1 meter from the tube
The tabletop intensity for a fluoroscopic beam must not exceed? (Lange Prep, p. 271) 10 R/min
Primary barriers protect from? (Lange Prep, p. 272) The useful beam
Secondary barriers protect from? (Lange Prep, p. 272) Scattered and leakage radiation
The walls of lead barriers must be how tall? (Lange Prep, p. 272) 7 feet
Protective apparel includes? (Lange Prep, p. 273) Lead aprons, thyroid shields, lead gloves, lead eyewear
The gestational dose limit for a fetus during the gestational period must not exceed? (Lange Prep, p. 274) 500 mrem (5mSv)
Measures ionization in air? (Lange Prep, p. 281) Roentgen
Amount of energy deposited per unit mass. (Lange Prep, p. 282) Rad
Dose equivalence and used to express occupational exposure. (Lange Prep, p. 282) Rem
Has a thin layer of aluminum oxide, multiple readouts, measures as low as 1 mrem, unaffected by heat, moisture and pressure, longer read periods. (Lange Prep, p. 284) OSL
Has an open window, used for 1 month, reads exposure as low as 10mrem. (Lange Prep, p. 285) Film badge
Crystalline chips of lithium fluoride, reads doses as low as 5 mrem, unaffected by heat, humidity, worn up to 3 months. (Lange Prep, p. 285) TLD
High exposure areas,immediate reading is available to the user, resembles a pen light, has a thimble ionization chamber, no permanent record. (Lange Prep, p. 286) Pocket dosimeter
Occupationally exposed persons should not receive doses in excess of what amount per year? (Lange Prep, p. 288) 5 rem (50 mSv) / year
The monthly fetal dose should not exceed? (Lange Prep, p. 289) 0.05 mrem (.5 mSv)
Created by: KelliAnn2292