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RadT 465

Radiographic Procedures

QuestionAnswer
A large and heavy body, bony framework, thick, short, wide, lungs and heart are high, stomach is transverse, gallbladder is high and lateral and colon is peripheral. What type of body habitus is this? (Lange Prep, p. 78) Hypersthenic
Body is slender and light with bony framework that is delicate, thorax is long and narrow, stomach is low and long, gallbladder is low and medial, colon is low, medial, and redundant. What type of body habitus is this? (Lange Prep, p. 78) Asthenic
Body build is average and athletic with elongated abdomen and thorax, with high lungs and heart, transverse stomach, gallbladder is high and lateral, colon is peripheral. What type of body habitus is this? (Lange Prep, p. 78) Sthenic
Body is slight and less robust, stomach, intestines, and gallbladder are situated higher in the abdomen, delicate framework, thorax is long. What type of body habitus is this? (Lange Prep, p. 78) Hyposthenic
What plane divides the body into left and right halves? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Midsagittal or medial sagittal plane
What plane is parallel to the midsagittal plane? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Sagittal plane
What plane divides the body into anterior and posterior halves? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Midcoronal plane
What plane is parallel to the midcoronal plane? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Coronal plane
What plane is perpendicular to the midsagittal plane and midcoronal plane, and divides the body axially into superior and inferior portions? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Transverse/horizontal plane
Refers to the body's physical position: recumbent, erect, prone, supine, trendelenburg. (Lange Prep, p. 81) Radiographic position
Describes the path of the central ray (Lange Prep, p. 81) Radiographic projection
Describes the body part as seen by the image receptor. Radiographic view
Lying on back, face up is? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Supine
Lying on abdomen, face down is? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Prone
Supine, prone, or lateral using a horizontal beam is? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Decubitus
Facing is the imaging receptor is what position? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Anterior position
The back is toward the image receptor is what position? (Lange Prep, p. 81) Posterior position
Body is rotated with right anterior aspect near the imaging receptor? (Lange Prep, p. 81) RAO
Body is rotated with left anterior aspect nearest the image receptor? (Lange Prep, p. 81) LAO
Body is rotated with the right posterior aspect near the image receptor? (Lange Prep, p. 81) RPO
Body is rotated with the left posterior aspect nearest the imaging receptor? (Lange Prep, p. 81) LPO
Turning of the body or arm so the palm faces forward, with the thumb away from the midline of the body? (Lange Prep, p. 83) Supination
Turning of the body or arm so the palm faces backward, with the thumb toward the midline of the body. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Pronation
Movement of the part away from the body's midsagittal plane. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Abduction
Movement of a part toward the body's midsagittal plane. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Adduction
Bending motion of an articulation, decreasing the angle between associated bones. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Flexion
Bending motion of an articulation, increasing the angle between associated bones. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Extension
A turning outward or lateral motion of an articulation, sometimes with external tension or stress applied. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Eversion
A turning inward or medial motion of an articulation, sometimes with external tension or stress applied. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Inversion
Movement of a part about its central or long axis. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Rotation
Movement of a limb that produces circular motion, circumscribes a small area at its proximal end and a wide area at the distal end. (Lange Prep, p. 84) Circumduction
What are the functions of the skeletal system? (Lange Prep, p. 91) Support, reservoir for minerals, muscle attachment/movement, protection, hematopoiesis
What types of bone tissue are in the body? (Lange Prep, p. 91) Cortical (hard, compact) and cancellous (spongy)
What type of joints are immovable and fibrous? (Lange Prep, p. 91) Synarthrotic
What type of joints are cartilaginous and partially movable? (Lange Prep, p. 91) Amphiarthrotic
What type of joints are synovial and freely moveable? (Lange Prep, p. 92) Diarthrotic
The simplest motion, least movement, smooth/sliding motion. Includes intercarpal and intertarsal joints, acromioclavicular, and costovertebral joints. What type of movement is this? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Gliding/plane
Permits rotation around a single axis. The anatomy included are: proximal radioulnar joint and atlantoaxial joint. What type of movement is this? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Pivot/trochoid
Permits flexion and extension. The anatomy included are: elbow, interphalangeal joints, knee, and ankle. What type of movement is this? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Hinge/ginglymus
Permits flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, and circumduction with more motion distally and less proximally. The anatomy included are the: hip and shoulder. What type of movement is this? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Ball and socket/spheroid
Permits flexion, extension, adduction and circumduction (no rotation). The radiocarpal joint and metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5 are included in this classification. What type of movement is this? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Condyloid/ellipsoid
Permits flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction (no rotation). The first carpometacarpal joint (thumb) is included in this classification. What type of movement is this? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Saddle/sellar
Inflammation of a joint. (Lange Prep, p. 93) Arthritis
The most common type of arthritis is? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Osteoarthritis
A condition characterized by loss of bone mass, predisposing bones to fracture is? (Lange Prep, p. 93) Osteoporosis
What is the primary ossification center during bone development? (Lange Prep, p. 94) Shaft/diaphysis
What is the secondary ossification center during bone development? (Lange Prep, p. 94) Epiphysis
Pronated, elbow flexed 90 degrees, fingers extended and slightly spread. Perpendicular to the 3rd MCP. Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and their articulations, provides oblique projection of the thumb. (Lange Prep, p. 102) PA hand
Prone, elbow flexed 90 degrees, hand/forearm oblique 45 degrees. Perpendicular to the 3rd MCP. Projection of carpals, metacarpals, phalanges and articulations, use finger sponge to place joints parallel to the IR and open joint spaces.(Lange Prep, p.102) Oblique hand
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, fingers extended, wrist, lateral, ulnar surface down. Perpendicular to the MCPs. Superimposed carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and articulations; decrease 10 kV for foreign body. (Lange Prep, p. 102) Lateral hand in extension
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, fingers slightly flexed and superimposed. Perpendicular to MCPs. Superimposed carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, and articulations. Shows anterior/posterior fracture displacement. (Lange Prep, p. 102) Lateral hand in flexion
Dorsal surface adjacent and parallel to the IR. Perpendicular to the MCP (Lange Prep, p. 103) AP thumb
Palmar surface parallel to IR, OID is increased. Perpendicular to the MCP. (Lange Prep, p. 103) PA thumb
Surface adjacent to the IR, fingers elevated and resting on a sponge. Perpendicular to the MCP. Projection of first digit, three articulations should be seen: CMC, CMP and IPJ. (Lange Prep, p. 103) Lateral thumb
Hand pronated and fingers extended, elbow flexed 90 degrees. Perpendicular to the proximal IPJ. Proximal, middle, and distal phalanges seen. (Lange Prep, p. 103) PA fingers
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, forearm, lateral fingers extended and parallel to the IR. Perpendicular to the proximal IPJ. Proximal, middle and distal phalanges; 2nd and 3rd digits: radial side down, 4th and 5th digits: ulnar side down. (Lange Prep, p. 103) Lateral fingers
Hand pronated with MCPs slightly flexed, elbow flexed 90 degrees. Perpendicular to midcarpal. Carpals, proximal region of metacarpals, distal radius, and ulna, flexion of MCPs reduces OID. PA wrist
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, ulnar surface down, radius and ulna superimposed. Perpendicular to midcarpal region. Carpals, superimposed proximal metacarpals, and distal radius and ulna. (Lange Prep, p. 103) Lateral Wrist
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, wrist 45 degrees with IR, ulnar surface down. Perpendicular to midcarpal region. Used for scaphoid and for lateral carpals and interspaces. (Lange Prep, p. 103) PA semi-pronation Oblique
Extended, 45 degree with IR, ulnar surface down. Perpendicular to midcarpal. Useful for pisiform, region triquetrum and hamate medial carpals and their interspaces. (Lange Prep, p. 103) AP semiarm supination oblique
Position as PA wrist, evert hand laterally without moving forearm. Perpendicular to scaphoid. Scaphoid and other lateral carpal interspaces; reduces foreshortening of scaphoid PA ulnar flexion/deviation
Position as PA wrist, move elbow toward body without moving the hand/wrist. Perpendicular to midcarpal region. Medial carpal interspaces. (Lange Prep, p. 103) PA radial flexion/deviation
Forearm pronated or pronated and elevated 20 degrees. Center to 20 degree toward elbow entering scaphoid or perpendicular to scaphoid. Scaphoid without foreshortening and self-superimposition. (Lange Prep, p. 103) Scaphoid (Stecher) wrist
Hyperextend wrist with palm vertical. 25-30 degree into long axis of hand. Carpal canal (tunnel); trapezium, scaphoid, capitate, triquetrum, and pisiform. (Lange Prep, p. 103) Carpal canal (Gaynor-Hart) wrist
Supinated and extended, epicondyles parallel to the IR, shoulder and elbow on the same plane. Perpendicular to midforearm. Radius and ulna, including wrist and elbow joints, arm must be supinated to avoid overlap of the radius and ulna.(Lange Prep, p.105) AP forearm
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, epicondyles superimposed & perpendicular to the IR. Hand lateral, shoulder & elbow on the same plane. Perpendicular to midforearm. Radius and ulna superimposed distally. Radius and ulna, elbow and wrist joints.(Lange Prep, p. 105) Lateral forearm
Extended, supinated, epicondyles parallel to the IR. Perpendicular to elbow joint, midway between the epicondyles. Elbow joint, proximal radius and ulna, distal humerus; radial head and tuberosity partially superimposed on ulna. (Lange Prep, p. 105) AP elbow
Flexed 90 degrees, epicondyles perpendicular to IR, forearm/wrist are lateral. Perpendicular to elbow joint at epicondyles. Elbow joint, proximal radius/ulna, distal humerus; radial head partially superimposed on ulna, olecranon process(Lange Prep, p.105) Lateral elbow
Arm extended, palm down, epicondyles 45 degrees to IR. Perpendicular to the elbow joint midway between epicondyles. Oblique elbow joint; coronoid process in profile.(Lange Prep, p. 105) Internal (medial) oblique elbow
Forearm extended & rotated laterally, radial surface down, epicondyles 45 degrees to IR. Perpendicular to elbow joint midway between epicondyles. Oblique elbow joint, radial head, neck, and tuberosity free from superimposition of ulna.(Lange Prep, p. 105) External (lateral) oblique
Elbow flexed 90 degrees, hand pronated or elbow flexed 80 degrees, hand pronated. CR to elbow at 45 degree toward shoulder. or From shoulder to elbow at 45 degree. (Lange Prep, p. 105) For radial head or coronoid process elbow
Arm extended and supinated; epicondyles perpendicular to IR. Perpendicular to midhumerus. Humreus, includes shoulder and elbow joints, greater tubercle in profile, epicondyles parallel to IR. (Lange Prep, p. 105) AP humerus
Elbow flexed 90 degrees; epicondyles parallel to Ir. Perpendicular to midhumerus. Hmerus including shoulder and elbow joints, lesser tubercle in profile; epicondles superimposed and perpendicular to IR. (Lange Prep, p. 105) Lateral humerus
Arm extended, supinated with epicondyles parallel to IR, perpendicular to coracoid process, external: true humerus, shows greater tubercle in profile (Lange Prep, p. 106) AP shoulder
Arm extended; palm against thigh, epicondyles 45 degrees to IR, perpendicular to coracoid process, neutral position: good for calcific deposits, and trauma. (Lange Prep, p. 106) AP shoulder
Arm extended, elbow slightly flexed, back of hand against thigh. Perpendicular to coracoid process; internal rotation: lateral of humerus, shows lesser tubercle in profile. (Lange Prep, p. 106) AP shoulder
RPO or LPO (erect/recumbent), MSP 35-45 degree to affected side, scapula parallel to IR border, suspend respiration. Perpendicular to 2'' medial and 2'' inferior to superior and lateral shoulder. Glenohumeral joint and glenoid cavity. (Lange Prep, p. 106) Posterior oblique Grashey Method shoulder
Patient erect lateral with affected surgical neck centered to IR; unaffected arm over head. CR to affected surgical neck. Lateral shoulder and proximal humerus through thorax. (Lange Prep, p. 106) Transthoracic lateral shoulder
Affected shoulder centered with MCP 60 degrees to IR. Perpendicular to should joint. Oblique shoulder; good for demonstration of dislocations. (Lange Prep, p. 106) PA oblique scapular Y shoulder
Patient supine with shoulder elevated from table about 2'', arm abducted 90 degrees in external rotation. CR horizontally to axilla. Lateral of proximal humerus, glenohumeral joint, coracoid process and lesser tubercle in profile. (Lange Prep, p. 106) Inferosuperior (non-trauma) shoulder
Patient recumbent or erect; center affected clavicle to IR; less OID in PA projection. Perpendicular to midshaft. Entire length of clavicle and articulations best done PA erect or AP recumbent for patient comfort. (Lange Prep, p. 108) AP or PA clavicle
Patient PA or AP, affected clavicle centered to IR; CR to supraclavicular fossa 15-20 degree caudad angle for PA, cephalad for AP. Projection of clavicle can demonstrate fractures not seen indirect PA or AP. (Lange Prep, p. 108) PA or AP axial clavicle
Patient erect, MSP to mid-IR, arms at sides. Two images: with weights, without weights. Perpendicular to midline at level of AC joints. Projection of AC joint and soft tissues. demonstrates dislocation/separation when performed erect.(Lange Prep, p.108) AP acromioclavicular joints
Upright or recumbent; Centered with arm abducted and elbow flexed. Perpendicular to midscapula, about 2" iinferior to coracoid process. Portion away from ribs; exposure made during quite breathing to blur lung markings. (Lange Prep, p. 108) AP scapula
Erect 45-60 degrees; affected side to IR, arm across chest for acromion & coracoid; palpate scapular borders; perpendicular to midvertebral border; Acromion & coracoid processes, superimposed vertebral & axillary borders free of rib cage.(Lange Prep,p.108 Lateral anterior oblique Scapula
Recumbent oblique with affected posterior surface away from IR; palpate borders, rotate patient until borders are superimposed; perpendicular to mid axillary border. Lateral and medial borders superimposed and humerus away from body. (Lange Prep, p. 108) Lateral posterior oblique scapula
Knee flexed 45 degrees, plantar surface on IR, perpendicular or 10 degrees toward heel to base of 3rd metatarsal; tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges with their articulations. (Lange Prep, p. 119) Dorsoplantar AP foot
Rotate medially 30 degree, plantar surface and IR form 30 degree angle, perpendicular to base of 3rd metatarsal; most tarsals, metatarsals and articulations, sinus tarsi, tuberosity of 5th metatarsal. (Lange Prep, p. 119) Medial oblique foot
Patella perpendicular to tabletop, foot slightly dorsiflexed with plantar surface parallel to IR; perpendicular to metatarsal bases; foot and ankel joint, distal tibia and fibula; superimposed tarsals, tibia and fibula. (Lange Prep, p. 119) Lateral knee
Knee flexed 45 degrees, plantar surface on IR, CR perpendicular or 10 degrees toward heel to 2nd MTP; phalanges and articulations, distal metatarsals.(Lange Prep, p. 119) Dorsoplantar AP toes
Rotate medially 30-45 degrees, perpendicular to 3rd MTP; Projection of phalanges and articulations and distal metatarsals. (Lange Prep, p. 119) Medial oblique toes
Turn to side that brings affected toes closest to IR; unaffected toes taped back. Perpendicular to proximal IPJ. Projection of toes and articulations. (Lange Prep, p. 119) Lateral toes
Patient prone, foot dorsiflexed 15-20 degrees, toes dorsiflexed 15-20 degrees and resting on cassette. Perpendicular or 10 degrees caudad to IR to first MTP. Sesamoids in profile , free of superimpositions. (Lange Prep, p. 119) Sesamoids (tangential)
Patient seated on table with leg extended, plantar surface perpendicular to tabletop, CR 40 degree cephalad to base of 3rd metatarsal; Trochlear process, sustentaculum tali, talocalcaneal joint, calcaneus. (Lange Prep, p. 121) Plantodorsal Axial calcaneus
Patient prone; plantar surface perpendicular to tabletop, IR placed against plantar surface. CR 40 degree caudally to level of base of 2nd MTP. Axial calcaneus, trochlear process, sustentaculum tali, talocalcaneal joint (Lange Prep, p. 121) Dorsoplantar axial calcaneus
Patient on affected perpendicular side, patella prpendicular tabletop, foot, and ankle lateral, CR to midcalcaneus; lateral calcaneus, talus, navicular, ankle joint, and sinus tarsi. (Lange Prep, p. 121) Lateral calcaneus
Leg extended, plantar surface perpendicular to IR; Cr perpendicular midway between malleoli through tibiotalar joint; ankle joint, distal tibia/fibula, talus (Lange Prep, p. 122) AP ankle
Leg extended, rotated 15-20 degrees medially until intermalleolar plane perpendicular to IR; CR perpendicular to midway between malleoli and perpendicular to intermalleolar plane; ankle mortise, talotibial, aspects of mortise joint. (Lange Prep, p. 122) AP mortise (medial oblique) ankle
Patient turned on affected side, patella perpendicular to tabletop, foot dorsiflexed, CR perpendicular to ankle joint; lateral distal tib/fib, ankle joint, talus, calcaneus, navicular. (Lange Prep, p. 122) Lateral (mediolateral or lateromedial) ankle
Leg extended, foot dorsiflexed, plantar surface perpendicular; Joint stressed in inversion; joint stressed in eversion; CR perpendicular to midway between malleoli; ankle joint: inversion and eversion: separated joint or torn ligament (Lange Prep, p. 122) AP stress view ankle
Leg extended no pelvic rotation, foot dorsiflexed, CR perpendicular to midshaft tibia; lower leg, both joints should be included. (Lange Prep, p. 123) AP lower leg (tibia/fibula)
Patient on affected side; patella perpendicular to tabletop, ankle and foot lateral; CR perpendicular to midshaft; tib/fib, both joints included. (Lange Prep, p. 123) Lateral lower leg (tib/fib)
Leg extended with foot dorsiflexed; leg rotated 45 degrees medially or laterally; CR perpendicular to midshaft of tibia; medial rotation shows proximal and distal tibiofibular articulations.(Lange Prep, p. 123) AP oblique (medial and lateral) rotation lower leg
Leg extended, no pelvic rotation; CR to 1/2'' below patellar apex; 3-5 degree angle needed for >24 and <19; knee joint, distal femur and proximal tib/fib, patella seen through femur. (Lange Prep, p. 124) AP knee
Patient on affected side, patella perpendicular to tabletop, knee flexed 20-30 degrees; knee, femoropatellar joints, superimposed femoral condyles (Lange Prep, p. 124) Lateral knee
Patient erect against upright bucky, weight evenly on legs; perpendicular CR midway between knees at level of patellar apices; knee joints - arthritic evaluation. (Lange Prep, p. 124) AP weight bearing bilateral knees
Patient PA recumbent, knee flexed - tibia forms 40 degrees with tabletop, foot rested on support; CR 40 degrees caudad to knee joint; Projection of intercondyloid fossa, tibial plateau, and eminences. (Lange Prep, p. 124) Intercondyloid fossa (Camp Coventry/PA axial) Knee
Patient AP with knee flexed about 20-30 degrees resting on support; CR cephalad to knee joint; Projection of intercondyloid fossa, tibial plteau and eminences. (Lange Prep, p. 124) Intercondyloid fossa (Beclere)
Patient prone, leg rotated 5-10 degrees laterally; CR perpendicular to patella; patella including knee joint. (Lange Prep, p. 125) PA patella
Place patient on affected side; patella perpendicular to tabletop, knee flexed 5-10 degrees; CR perpendicular to Ir and midfemoropatellar joint; Patella and femoropatellar joint. (Lange Prep, p. 125) Lateral (mediolateral) patella
Patient prone, knee flexed 90 degrees; CR to midfemoropatellar joint; patella, femoropatellar articulation, demonstrates vertical fracture. (Lange Prep, p. 125) Tangential (settegast/prone) flexion 90 degree patella
Patient prone, knee flexed about 55 degrees; CR to midfemoropatellar joint; patella, femoropatellar articulation; demonstrates vertical fracture. (Lange Prep, p. 125) Tangential (hughston/prone) flexion 55 degree patella
Patient supine, affected femur centered to midline of grid with leg internally rotated 15 degrees; CR perpendicular to midshaft; femur with hip joint. (Lange Prep, p. 125) AP femur
Patient recumbent lateral with affected leg centered to grid; patella perpendicular to tabletop; CR perpendicular to midshaft; femur from knee joint up, may do horizontal if fracture suspected. (Lange Prep, p. 125) Lateral (mediolateral) femur
Patient supine, sagittal plane 2'' medial to ASIS, no pelvic rotation, leg rotated 15 degrees internally; CR to sagittal plane 2'' medial to ASIS at level of greater trochanter; hip joint, femoral neck & proximal femur. (Lange Prep,p 126) AP hip
Patient supine, ASIS of affected side centered, knee and hip flexed, thighs abducted 40 degrees; CR perpendicular to affected hip 1'' above pubic symphysis; oblique hip, lesser trochanter on medial aspect of femur. (Lange Prep, p. 126) AP oblique (unilateral frog-leg, non-trauma; modified cleaves) hip
Patient supine, unaffected leg elevated; leg rotated internally 15 degrees, grid placed against thigh to femoral neck; CR perpendicular to femoral neck; Proximal femur & articulation with acetabulum, lesser trochanter seen on post femur.(Lange Prep,p.126) Axiolateral inferosuperior (cross-table lateral; Danelius-Miller) Hip
Patient supine, legs extended, cassette placed on extended bucky tray and tilted back 15-20 degrees, CR 15-20 degrees posterior, enter proximal medial thigh, perpendicular to mid-femoral neck, oblique proximal femur and hip joint. (Lange Prep, p. 126) Trauma axiolateral inferosuperior trauma (Clements-Nakayama) hip
Patient semisupine recumbent, 45 degree posterior oblique; Affected side down: 2'' medial and distal to ASIS; Affected side up: CR 2'' to distal ASIS; Down: anterior rim of acetabulum; Up: posterior rim and obturator foramen. (Lange Prep, p. 126) Acetabulum posterior oblique (Judet)
Patient supine, MSP perpendicular to tabletop, no pelvic rotation, legs rotated 15 degrees; CR perpendicular to midline at 2'' above greater trochanter, top of IR 1-2'' above iliac crest; pelvic and upper femora with femoral necks. (Lange Prep, p. 127) AP pelvis
Patient supine, no pelvic rotation; Outlet: CR to pubic symphysis, greater trochanter 20-35 degree cephalad, 30-45 degrees; inlet: CR 40 degrees, between ASIS; outlet: ischial body, ramus, superior/inferior rami, inlet: pelvic inlet.(Lange Prep, p. 127) Pelvic bones outlet/inlet projections
Patient supine, MSP centered; 30-35 degree cephalad to midline approximately 2 in. below ASIS; sacrum, SI joints, L5-S1 articulation. (Lange Prep, p. 128) AP axial SI joints
Patient supine and obliqued 25-30 degrees affected side up with sagittal plane 1'' medial to ASIS; CR perpendicular to 1'' medial-sacroliiac distal to ASIS; Joint of elevated side. (Lange Prep, p. 128) AP oblique LPO or RPO
Patient prone and obliqued 25-30 degrees affected side down with sagittal plane 1'' medial to ASIS; CR perpendicular to 1'' sacroiliac medial to ASIS; joint of side down. (Lange Prep, p. 128) PA oblique RAO or LAO
An undisplaced fracture. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Simple fracture
Fractured end of bone has penetrated skin. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Compound fracture
Fracture does not traverse entire bone; little or no displacement. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Incomplete fracture
Break of cortex on one side of bone only; found in infants and children. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Greenstick fracture
Greenstick fracture with one cortex buckled/compacted and the other intact. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Torus/buckle fracture
Response to repeated strong, powerful force. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Stress/fatigue frature
Small bony fragments pulled from bony prominence as a result of forceful pull of the attached ligament or tendon (chip fracture)(Lange Prep, p. 131) Avulsion fracture
Faint undisplaced fracture. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Hairline fracture
One fracture composed of several fragments. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Comminuted fracture
Comminuted fracture with one or more wedge or butterfly wing shaped pieces. (Lange Prep, p. 131) Butterfly fracture
Long fracture encircling a shaft, result of torsion. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Spiral
Longitudinal fracture forming an angle with the long axis of the shaft. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Oblique fracture
Fracture occurring at right angles to long axis of bone. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Transverse fracture
Fracture just proximal to the head of the fifth metacarpal. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Boxer fracture
Fracture proximal third of ulnar shaft with anterior dislocation of the radial head. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Monteggia fracture
Transverse fracture of the distal third of the radius with posterior angulation and associated with avulsion fracture of ulnar styloid process. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Colles fracture
Fracture of the lateral malleolus, medial malleolus on medial and posterior surfaces.(Lange Prep, p. 132) Trimalleolar fracture
Fracture at the base of the fifth metatarsal. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Jones fracture
Fracture of the distal tibia and fibula with dislocation of the ankle joint. (Lange Prep, p. 132) Potts fracture
Fracture of bone weakened by pathologic condition. Pathologic fracture
An exaggerated thoracic curve is? (Lange Prep, p. 133) Kyphosis
Lateral curvature of the spine is? (Lange Prep, p. 133) Scoliosis
The neural/vertebral arch is composed of? (Lange Prep, p. 133) 2 pedicles and 2 laminae
The neural/vertebral arch supports? (Lange Prep, p. 133) 2 superior articular processes, 2 inferior articular processes, 2 transverse processes, and 1 spinous process.
Patient supine, MSP perpendicular to the table, 15-20 degree cephalad to thyroid cartilage; Lower 5 cervical and intervertebral disk spaces. (Lange Prep, p. 137) AP cervical spine
Patient supine/ MSP perpendicular to table, mouth open, mastoid tips and upper occlusal plane aligned; center to open mouth; projection of C1, C2 and articulations. (Lange Prep, p. 137) AP open mouth cervical spine
Patient erect with left side to IR, chin elevated, shoulders depressed, level of C4, perpendicular to C4; all 7 vertebrae, intervertebral joint spaces, apophyseal joints, spinous processes, bodies. (Lange Prep, p. 137) Lateral cervical spine
Patient PA erect, MSP 45 degree, centered to C5; 15-20 degree caudad angle; best view of intervertebral foramina closest to IR (AO); PO: cephalad, foramina farthest from IR. (Lange Prep, p. 137) Oblique (LAO and RAO) cervical spine
Patient erect with mid axillary line centered to grid, MSP, arm closest to IR - over head; depress opposite shoulder; CR perpendicular to T2; lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. (Lange Prep, p. 137) Lateral cervicothoracic (Swimmer's lateral)
Patient supine, MSP perpendicular to the tabletop, top of IR 1'' above shoulders. CR perpendicular to T7. Thoracic vertebrae, intervertebral spaces. (Lange Prep, p. 139) AP Thoracic spine
Patient left lateral recumbent, midaxillary line, arms perpendicular to long axis of the body, top of IR 1'' above the shoulders. CR 5-15 degrees cephalad; thoracic vertebrae & bodies, intervertebral spaces and formaina.(Lange Prep, p.139) Lateral thoracic spine
Patient supine, MSP perpendicular to the tabletop, knees flexed, feet flat on table. CR perpendicular to L3. Lumbar vertebrae L1-L4, intervertebral spaces, transverse processes. (Lange Prep, p. 141) AP lumbar spine
Patient supine, MSP perpendicular to tabletop, legs extended; CR to MSP at 30-35 degrees cephalad and 1 1/2 inches above pubic symphysis; lumbosacral articulation. (Lange Prep, p. 141) AP L5-S1
Patient recumbent AP, obliqued 45 degrees; CR perpendicular to L3; lumbar vertebrae, apophyseal articulations of side adjacent to table. (Lange Prep, p. 141) Oblique RPO and LPO lumbar spine
Patient left lateral recumbent; midaxillary line centered to grid, CR 5-8 degrees caudad to L3; vertebral bodies, interspaces, intervertebral foramina, spinous processes.(Lange Prep, p. 141) Lateral lumbar
Patient left lateral recumbent, center 1.5'' posterior to midaxillary line; coronal lateral plane at level midway between crest and ASIS; L5-S1, with 5-8 degree angle if needed. (Lange Prep, p. 141) Lateral L5-S1 spot
Patient supine; 15-25 cephalad to midline, midway between pubic symphysis and ASIS; sacrum. (Lange Prep, p. 143) AP sacrum
Patient left lateral recumbent, 3'' posterior to MCP, CR perpendicular to 3'' posterior to ASIS; lateral sacrum. (Lange Prep, p. 143) Lateral sacrum
Patient supine, MSP centered; 30-35 degree cephalad, to midline approximately 2in below level of ASIS' sacrum, SI joints, L5-S1 articulation.(Lange Prep, p. 143) AP axial SI joints
Patient supine and obliqued 25-30 degrees, affected side up with sagittal plane 1'' medial to ASIS; CR perpendicular to 1'' medial to sacroiliac, distal to ASIS; joint of elevated side. (Lange Prep, p. 143) AP oblique RPO and LPO SI joints
Patient prone, obliqued 25-30 degrees, affected side down, sagittal plane 1'' medial to ASIS; CR perpendicular to 1'' sacroiliac medial to ASIS; SI joint of down side.(Lange Prep, p. 143) PA oblique LAO and RAO SI joints
Patient AP supine, MSP perpendicular to tabletop; 10-20 degrees caudad to midline to point 2'' above symphysis pubis; coccyx. (Lange Prep, p. 145) AP coccyx
Patient left lateral recumbent, 5'' posterior to MCP; CR perpendicular to 5'' posterior to MCP at mid-coccyx. Coccyx. (Lange Prep, p. 145) Lateral coccyx
Patient 15-20 degrees RAO; greater obliquity for thin patients, CR perpendicular to midsternum. Sternum into heart shadow. (Lange Prep, p. 147) PA oblique RAO sternum
Patient erect lateral; shoulders rolled back, MSP vertical, IR top 1.5 in above manubrial notch; CR perpendicular to midsternum; sternum free of superimposition of ribs, made with deep inspiration. (Lange Prep, p. 147) Lateral sternum
Patient prone; MSP centered to grid; IR centered to T3; CR perpendicular to T3; bilateral projection of sternoclavicular joints viewed through superimposed vertebrae and ribs. (Lange Prep, p. 147) PA sternoclavicular joints
Patient prone; MSP centered to grid; rotate body 15 degrees, affected side down; CR perpendicular to affected joint; projection of sternoclavicular joint closest to IR(Lange Prep, p. 147) PA oblique RAO and LAO sternoclavicular joints
Patient supine or erect, MSP perpendicular to midline of table' top of IR 1'' above shoulder; CR perpendicular to IR, about T7; upper posterior ribs. (Lange Prep, p. 148) AP ribs
Patient prone or erect, rotate 45 degrees, unaffected side down; CR perpendicular to IR about level of T7; axillary portion of ribs; RAO shows left, LAO shows right. (Lange Prep, p. 148) PA oblique RAO and LAO ribs
Patient supine or erect; rotate to 45 degrees affected side toward IR; CR perpendicular to IR, about level of T7; shows posterior ribs and axillary portions, RPO shows right, LPO shows left. (Lange Prep, p. 148) AP oblique RAO and LAO ribs
What are the cranial bones? (Lange Prep, p. 150) 1 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, 1 ethmoid, 1 sphenoid
A skull fracture, straight and sharply defined is? (Lange Prep, p. 151) Linear fracture
A comminuted skull fracture, with one or more portions pushed inward. (Lange Prep, p. 151) Depressed fracture
Fracture of C2, with anterior subluxation of C2 on C3, result of forceful hyperextension. (Lange Prep, p. 151) Hangman fracture
Especially of spongy (cancellous) bone; diminished thickness or width as a result of compression type force. (Lange Prep, p. 151) Compression fracture
Fracture of the orbital floor as a result of a direct blow. (Lange Prep, p. 151) Blowout fracture
What are the facial bones? (Lange Prep, p. 154) 2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchae, 2 zygomatic/malar, 2 maxillae, 1 vomer, 1 mandible
Patient prone, MSP perpendicular to midtable, OML perpendicular to IR; CR perpendicular to nasion; projection of skull, petrous pyramid fills orbits, demonstrates frontal bone, lateral cranial walls, frontal sinuses, cristi galli. (Lange Prep, p. 156) PA cranium
Patient PA, MSP centered to grid, OML perpendicular to grid, IR centered to nasion; CR 15 degrees caudad to nasion; axial cranium, petrous portions in lower 1/3 of orbits, frontal and ethmoidal sinuses. (Lange Prep, p. 156) PA axial caldwell cranium
Patient supine, OML vertical, top of IR 1.5'' below vertex; 30 degree caudad to a point about 1.5'' above glabella or 37 degrees to IOML; axial skull, petrous pyramids, dorsum sella, posterior clinoid processes in foramen magnum.(Lange Prep, p.156) AP axial towne cranium
Patient PA, CR 25 degrees cephalad to the OML, CR to 1 1/2 inches below inion and exits 1 1/2 inches above nasion. (Lange Prep, p. 156) PA haas method cranium
PA, interpupillary line vertical, IOML parallel to transverse axis of IR; CR perpendicular to a point 2'' superior to EAM; skull with superimposed cranial & facial structures, anterior/posterior clinoid processes & supraorbital margins.(Lange Prep, p.156) Lateral cranium
Neck hyperextended; CR perpendicular to IOML,enters at level of sella; basal projection of skull, sphenoid & maxillary sinuses, dens, petrous pyramids with mandibular condyles anterior to petrosae & symphysis on frontal bones.(Lange Prep, p.156) Full basal projection submentovertical (SMV) cranium
Patient supine, OML perpendicular to IR; CR perpendicular to nasion, projection of skull, petrous pyramids fill the orbits. (Lange Prep, p. 156) AP trauma cranium
Patient AP, OML perpendicular to grid, IR to centered to nasion; CR 15 degrees cephalad to nasion; axial cranium, petrous portions in lower third of orbitts, facial structures magnified. (Lange Prep, p. 156) AP axial trauma cranium
Patient supine, head on sponge, interpupillary line perpendicular to IR; CR perpendicular to IR, 2'' lateral superior to EAM; skull in dorsal decubitus, demonstrates sphenoid sinus effusion - sign of basal skull fracture. (Lange Prep, p. 156) Lateral trauma cranium
Patient PA, chin extended so OML is 37 degrees to IR; CR perpendicular to parietal region, exiting the acanthion; axial facial bones, orbits, zygomas, and maxillae. (Lange Prep, p. 159) Parietoacanthial (waters) orbits
PA; CR 15 degrees caudad to nasion; axial orbits, nasal septum, maxillae, zygomas, petrous ridges seen in lower 1/3 of orbits. (Lange Prep, p. 159) PA axial caldwell orbits
PA, IOML parallel to transverse axis of IR; CR perpendicular to a point 2'' superior to EAM; skull demonstrating superimposed cranial & facial structures, clinoid processes & supraorbital margins superimposed. (Lange Prep, p. 159) Lateral orbits
PA, chin extended so OML is 37 degrees; CR perpendicular to parietal region, exiting the acanthion; axial facial bones - orbits, zygomas, maxillae. (Lange Prep, p. 159) Parietoacanthial (waters) facial bones
PA, IOML parallel to transverse axis of IR; CR perpendicular to zygoma; projection of superimposed facial bones. (Lange Prep, p. 159) Lateral facial bones
PA, OML perpendicular to grid; CR 15 degrees caudad to nasion; axial facial bones, petrous portions in lower 1/3 of orbits. (Lange Prep, p. 159) PA axial (caldwell) facial bones
Patient supine; 30 degree, parallel to mentomeatal line, entering acanthion; axial magnified projection of facial bones. (Lange Prep, p. 159) AP axial trauma (reverse waters) facial bones
Patient supine; cross-table with a horizontal beam; CR enters 2'' superior to EAM; lateral facial bones. (Lange Prep, p. 159) Lateral trauma facial bones
Patient supine, neck hyperextended to place IOML parallel to IR; CR perpendicular to IOML and enters at level of the sella; skull, formina, sphenoid and maxillary sinuses, bilateral zygomatic arches (Lange Prep, p. 160) Full basal position/submentovertical projection (SMV) zygomatic arches
Patient supine; 30 degrees caudad to glabella or 37 to IOML; axial zygomatic arches free of superimposition. (Lange Prep, p. 160) AP axial towne zygomatic arches
Patient PA, chin extended; CR perpendicular to parietal region, exiting at the acanthion; axial facial bones - orbits, zygomas, and maxillae. (Lange Prep, p. 160) Parietoacanthial (waters) zygomatic arches
Patient PA, interpupillary line perpendicular to IR; CR perpendicular to a point 3/4 inches distal to nasion, include nasofrontal suture; superimposed nasal bones and soft tissue. (Lange Prep, p. 160) Lateral nasal bones
Patient PA, nose and forehead on table; CR perpendicular to the lips; body and rami of mandible. (Lange Prep, p. 161) PA mandible
Patient PA, nose and forehead on table; 20-25 degree cephalad to center of IR; axial mandible - rami and condyles. (Lange Prep, p. 161) PA axial mandible
Patient PA, IR centered 1/2'' anterior and 1'' inferior to the EAM; CR 25 degree cephalad angle, enters at mandibular angle of unaffected side; axiolateral - body and ramus. (Lange Prep, p. 161) Axiolateral oblique mandible
Patient supine; CR 30 degree caudad through midramus; axial rami free of superimposition. (Lange Prep, p. 161) AP axial towne mandible
Patient supine, neck hyperextended; CR perpendicular to IOML, enters at level of the sella;basal skull, odontoid through foramen magnum, petrous pyraminds with mandibular condyles anterior to petroase, symphysis imposed on frontal bones(Lange Prep, p.161) Basal projection/submentovertical (SMV) mandible
Patient AP; CR 30 degree caudad, enters about 3'' above nasion; axial condyloid processes and articulations, mouth open unless contraindicated. (Lange Prep, p. 162) AP axial towne temperomandibular joint
Patient PA; CR 25 degree caudad, exiting lower most TMJ; axiolateral TMJ. (Lange Prep, p. 162) Lateral (Schuller) TMJ
Patient PA, rotate MSP down 15 degrees; CR 15 degree caudad, enters 1 1/2 inches superior to EAM, exiting lower most TMJ; axiolateral TMJ of side down. (Lange Prep, p. 162) Axiolateral (Law) TMJ
Patient PA, elevate chin to place OML 15 degrees with horizontal beam; CR perpendicular to nasion; axial frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses, petrous ridges seen in lower 1/3 of orbits. (Lange Prep, p. 163) PA axial (caldwell) paranasal sinuses
Patient PA; CR enters parietal region and exits acanthion; projection of maxillary sinuses projected above petrous pyramids. (Lange Prep, p. 163) Parietoacanthial (waters) paranasal sinuses
Patient PA, centered 1'' posterior to outer canthus; CR enters 1'' posterior to outer canthus; projection of all paranasal sinuses. (Lange Prep, p. 163) Lateral paranasal sinuses
AP erect, neck hyperextended; CR perpendicular to IOML, enters MSP at sella level; basal projection of sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, mandibular symphysis superimposed on frontal bones. (Lange Prep, p. 163) SMV full basal paranasal sinuses
Patient AP supine or erect; CR enters at level of EAM, expose on slow nasal inspiration; air-filled nasopharynx/upper airway. (Lange Prep, p. 166) AP upper airway
Patient lateral, erect; CR enters at level of EAM, expose on slow nasal inspiration; air-filled nasopharynx/upper airway. (Lange Prep, p. 166) Lateral upper airway
What are the divisions of the airway? (Lange Prep, p. 168) Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Presence of air in the pleural cavity? (Lange Prep, p. 168) Pneumothorax
Patient erect, shoulders depressed and rolled forward, IR 1.5-2'' above shoulders; CR perpendicular to T7; thoracic viscera, inspiration: air-filled trachea and lungs, 10 posterior ribs; expiration: pulmonary markings. (Lange Prep, p.170) PA chest
Patient erect, arms over head, IR 1.5-2'' above shoulders;CR enters at level of T7; heart, aorta, left lung and fissures. (Lange Prep, p.170) Lateral chest
Patient erect; CR 15-20 degrees cephalad to T2; Axial projection of pulmonary apices below the clavicles. (Lange Prep, p.171) AP axial lordotic chest
Patient recumbent lateral on affected/unaffected side, 1.5 inches of IR above shoulders; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; frontal projection of chest, demonstrates air or fluid levels. (Lange Prep, p.171) Decubitus lateral chest
What are the layers of the GI tract? (Lange Prep, p.179) Mucosa, submucosa, muscular, serosa
What are the peritoneal folds? (Lange Prep, p.179) Greater omentum, lesser omentum, mesentery, mesocolon
An apron of fat over transverse colon and small bowel. (Lange Prep, p.179) Greater omentum
Suspends stomach and duodenum from liver, contains some biliary vessels. (Lange Prep, p.179) Lesser omentum
Binds jejunum and ileum to posterior abdominal wall, fan-shaped. (Lange Prep, p.179) Mesentery
Binds transverse and sigmoid colon to posterior abdominal wall. (Lange Prep, p.179) Mesocolon
What are the names of salivary glands? (Lange Prep, p.179) Parotid, submandibular, sublingual
What are the three parts of the stomach? (Lange Prep, p.179) Fundus, body, pylorus
What are the three parts of the small intestine? (Lange Prep, p.179) Dudenum (9-12 inches), Jejunum (9 feet), Ileum (13 feet)
What are the parts of the large intestine? (Lange Prep, p.181) Cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
Patient supine; CR to level of crest; kidneys, liver, spleen, psoas muscles, calcifications/masses. (Lange Prep, p.182) AP abdomen
Erect, about 2'' above iliac crest; CR to mid-IR; air fluid levels, both hemidiaphragms included. (Lange Prep, p.182) Erect abdomen
Patient lateral recumbent, centered 2'' above iliac crest; CR horizontal and perpendicular to mid-IR; demonstrates air-fluid levels in patients unable to stand, both hemidiaphragms. (Lange Prep, p.182) Lateral decubitus abdomen
Supine, IR about 1-2 inches above shoulders; CR perpendicular to T6-T7; esophagus - barium filled. (Lange Prep, p.184) AP esophagus
Prone, oblique 35-40 degrees, IR 1-2 inches above shoulders; CR to T6-T7; barium filled esophagus, demonstrated between vertebrae and heart. (Lange Prep, p.184) RAO esophagus
Recumbent lateral, top of IR above shoulders; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; barium-filled esophagus. (Lange Prep, p.184) Lateral esophagus
Supine, IR at level of crest; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; AP of entire large intestine. (Lange Prep, p.187) AP BE large intestine
Prone, IR at level of crest; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; entire intestine, demonstrate flexures. (Lange Prep, p.187) PA BE large intestine
Prone, IR at level of pubic symphysis; CR 35 degree caudad to midline at level of ASIS; axial sigmoid colon. (Lange Prep, p.187) PA axial BE large intestine
PA oblique about 40 degrees, centered to iliac crest; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; oblique projection of colon, demonstrates ascending colon and hepatic flexure. (Lange Prep, p.187) RAO BE large intestine
PA oblique 40 degrees, level of iliac crest; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; oblique projection of descending colon and splenic flexure. (Lange Prep, p.188) LAO BE large intestine
Lateral recumbent, level of ASIS; CR perpendicular to mid-IR; projection for rectum and rectosigmoid area. (Lange Prep, p.188) Lateral BE large intestine
Lateral recumbent, centered to iliac crest; CR horizontal and perpendicular to mid-IR; air to delineate lateral walls of colon. (Lange Prep, p.188) Lateral decubitus BE large intestine
Patient supine, centered to iliac crest; CR perpendicular to midline at level of crest; shows kidneys, liver, spleen, psoas muscles, calcification/masses. (Lange Prep, p.194) Abdomen KUB
Patient supine, lower edge of IR at pubic symphysis; CR perpendicular to center of IR; shows contrast filled or post void bladder. (Lange Prep, p.195) AP KUB bladder
Patient supine, IR centered to pubic symphysis; CR perpendicular to midline at level of pubic symphysis; bladder and proximal urethra; 5 degree caudad for females to place bladder neck and urethra below pubis (Lange Prep, p.195) AP voiding studies KUB bladder
Double layered fibrous membrane. (Lange Prep, p.199) Dura mater
The heart wall is made of what three layers? (Lange Prep, p.202) Epicardium, myocardium and endocardium
What encloses the heart and roots of the great vessels? (Lange Prep, p.202) Pericardium
Deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart is directed to the lungs for oxygenation then to the left side of the heart. (Lange Prep, p.204) Pulmonary circulation
Oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart is pumped to the body tissues then back to the right side of the heart. (Lange Prep, p.204) Systemic circulation
The aortic arch has what three vessels that come off of it?(Lange Prep, p.204) Brachiocephalic, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery
What arteries supply the brain? (Lange Prep, p.204) Internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries
Created by: KelliAnn2292