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Rad Procedures

RADT 465

QuestionAnswer
average u.s. doses annual background dose=approx 3 mSv, average chest x-ray= approx .1 mSv, average whole body CT= approx 10 mSv (Radiology Prep, p.230).
linear response is proportional to dose (Radiology Prep, p.231).
nonlinear response is not proportional to dose (Radiology Prep, p.231).
threshold a dose must be received before a response can occur (Radiology Prep, p.231).
nonthreshold no safe dose- even one photon can cause a response (Radiology Prep, p.231).
early effects appear a short time after exposure, usually as a result of high dose in short period of time, should not be seen in diagnostic radiology (Radiology Prep, p.231).
late effects can appear years after exposure: carcinogenesis, cataractogenesis, embryologic effect, lifespan shortening (Radiology Prep, p.231).
types of risks deterministic: threshold, nonlinear, includes all early effects, includes some later effects; stochastic: nonthreshold, linear, genetic effects, cancer, includes most late effects (Radiology Prep p.232).
types of DNA damage main chain, double-side rail break; main chain, single-side rail break; main chain breakage, cross-linking; base damage, point mutations (Radiology Prep, p.235).
ways to reduce risk to recently fertilized ovum elective scheduling/10 day rule, patient questionnaire, posting (Radiology Prep, p.237).
acute radiation syndromes hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, CNS (Radiology Prep, p.241).
stages of acute radiation syndrome prodromal, latent, manifest illness, recovery or death (Radiology Prep, p.241).
beam restriction reduces patient dose, reduces production of scattered radiation, improves image quality (Radiology Prep, p.250).
beam restrictor types aperture diaphragm, cone/cylinder, collimator (Radiology Prep, p.250).
gonadal shielding should be used if the gonads lie in, or within 5 cm of, collimated field; the patient has reasonable reproductive potential; diagnostic objectives permit (Radiology Prep, p.255).
ways to decrease patient fluoro dose decrease length of fluoro exposure, employ use of last image hold, keep patient as close to the II as possible, use ABC setting with highest kV/lowest mA combination, minimize boost usage, collimation, small FOV, pulse rate (Radiology Prep, p.262).
rules for selecting someone to assist the patient in the radiographic department a male older than 18, provide them lead, as far from protective useful beam, individual must not be afraid to stand in the path of useful beam.
radiation protection rules time, distance, shielding (Radiology Prep, 272)
primary barriers protect from the useful beam (Radiology Prep, 272)
secondary barriers protect from scattered and leakage radiation (Radiology Prep, 272)
roentgen measures ionization in air, measures x- or gamma radiation only, is valid up to 3, in air (Radiology Prep, 281)
rad Gray (Radiology Prep, 281)
rem Sievert (Radiology Prep, 281)
personal radiation monitors optically stimulated luminescence, film badge, pocket dosimeter, thermoluminescent dosimeter (Radiology Prep, 283)
t/f: when used correctly, digital imaging can significantly reduce patient dose true (Radiology Prep, 263)
t/f: grids reduce the radiographic image by reducing the amount of scattered radiation fog. false; grids improves the radiographic image by reducing the amount of scattered radiation fog (Radiology Prep, 263)
reproducablity a given group of exposure factors, output intensity must be consistent from one exposure to the next (Radiology Prep, 262)
linearity output intensity must be constant when adjacent when mA stations are used, with exposure times adjusted to maintain the same mAs; any variation in output intensity must not exceed 10% (Radiology Prep, 262)
Created by: meechthebeech91