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Pharmacology

Veterinary Fluid Replacement

QuestionAnswer
Crystalloids Versatile, low cost, can pass through cell membranes quickly and therefore get to all body fluid compartments easily, isotonic
Replacement fluids will become hypokalemic over time, put on maintanence fluids for long periods, gives less Na and more K
Normal Saline (0.9) use for hyperkalemia, when animal is low on Na, flush wounds, etc
LRS use in acidosis CI: hyperkalemia, can't give with blood products as will cause clotting, has lactate or acetate which will bind with H= takes down acidosis and makes animal alkalotic, has lots of potassium in it
5% dextrose use for cardiac patient, won't sustain animal calorie wise, still must feed
Ringers No lactate
Plasma-lyte R, Normosol-M Replacement fluids
Normosol R Maintenance fluid
Plasma-lyte M Maintenance fluid
Maintenance fluids can have +/- 5% dextrose, less sodium, more K (better over the long-term), not appropriate for rapid administration
Colloids in General Have large molecular weight, can't cross vascular membranes, hold fluid in bloodstream, expensive, use in shock SE: allergic reactions or clotting problems, BLOOD IS PERFECT COLLOID
Types of Colloids Dextrans, Hetastarch (longer lasting, less risk of SE), Albumen/plasma
Hypertonics in General Saline above 0.9%, make animal thirsty, treat shock, don't use SQ or will cause sloughing, SE: phlebitis, electrolyte imbalance. Use slow administration rate or risk hypotension, bronchoconstriction, bradycardia
Fluid additives add to alter electrolyte balances
Sodium Bicarb use in metabolic acidosis
Potassium Chloride Use when hypokalemic, when on long-term replacement fluids, anorexic, v/d, diuretics, sweating horses SE:arrythmias, muscle weakness
Calcium gluconate/calcium chloride Use for hypocalcemia, milk fever, eclampsia, thumps SE: arrythmias, hypotension if too fast
50% Dextrose Use in anorexia, hypoglycemia, DO NOT USE SQ - sloughing/hypertonic
Oral Electrolyte Preparations Usually powders that must be mixed with water, Tumil-K for dogs/cats potassium supplementation, many types
Created by: jtwilks