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Matter

Science

TermDefinition
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
Atom contains a nucleus that has protons and nuetrons/building blocks of molecules
Molecule contains atoms/what you combine atoms with to make different elements ex: water (2 Hydrogen and 1 Oxygen atom)
Element made up of 1 or more of the same atom example: O3
Compound made up of different kinds of elements example: H2O
Pure Substance made up of one type of matter (element or compound) has a constant compostion bound together cant be seperated using phyical means (sorting, filtering, heating and cooling)
Mixture made up of multiple types of matter/have a variable composition elements and compounds not bound together can be seperated by physical means
Homogeneus Mixture particules are evenly distributes-also known as solutions
Heterogeneus Mixture particles are not evenly distributed
solution a mixture containing atoms, ions or molecules fully dissolved
colloid a mixture containing mid-size particles that do not settle out (milk, aerosol/Old Spice)
suspension a mixture containing particles that settle out if left undisturbed (found in pharmaceuticals & italian dressings)
tyndall effect dispersed colloid particles scatter light allowing us to differentiate between colloids & solutions
physical property properties that can be measured or observed without matter changing to an entirely different substance
chemical property properties that can be measured or observed only when matter undergoes a change to become an entirely different kind of matter
reactivity to undergo a chemical reaction with another atom, molecule, or compound
flammability ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion
metals metals that can condcut electricity good conductors of heat
nonmetals elements that generally cannot conduct electricity second largest class of elements after metals
metalloids are the smallest class of elements, containing six elements. They go between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table. may act either like metals or nonmetals in chemical reactions.
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
atomic weight average mass of an atom of an element
electron affinity a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to form a negative ion, expressed as the energy released when an electron is attached
electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons
atomic radius measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
metallic character refers to the level of reactivity of a metal.
types of chemical bonds formed ionic bond- is formed by the attraction of oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms covalent chemical bond- comes from the sharing of electrons between 2 atoms with similar electronegativities polar covalent- covalent bond between two atoms
valence electrons are the electrons in the outer shell of an atom. The valence electrons are the ones involved in forming bonds to adjacent atoms.
ionization energy quantity of energy that an isolated, gaseous, atom in the ground electronic state must absorb to discharge an electron, resulting in a cation
melting point (liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
number of bonds formed (also known as valency)the combining power of an element, especially as measured by the number of hydrogen atoms it can displace or combine with
Created by: aharms18