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Nason Ch.1

Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Vocab

Vocab WordDefinition
Hindsight Bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (aka I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Operational Definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as waht an intelligence test measures
Replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
False Consensus Effect the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population, because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic Observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables
Illusionary Coorelation the perception of a relationship where none exists
Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
Double-Blind Procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research particpants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have recieved the treatment or the placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
Placebo Effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
Experimental Condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independant variable
Control Condition the condition of an experiment that participants are treated in contrast to the experimental condition and serve as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Random Assignment assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, this minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Independant Variable the experimental factor taht is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied
Dependant Variable the outcome variable; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independant variable
Mode the most frequently occuring score in a distribution
Mean the aritmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median the middle score in a distribution; half of the scores lie above, half lie below
Range difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Statistical Signifigance how likely that something happened by chance
Culture enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed from generation to generation
Created by: cookie_luv
Popular Psychology sets




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