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Pharmacology

Veterinary Gastrointestinal

QuestionAnswer
Apomorphine Emetic, naloxone is reversal, works centrally, hypodermic tablet, wear gloves, SE: protracted vomiting, conjunctivitis, opioid O/D, Cardiovascular depression
Syrup of ipecac Emetic, CARDIOTOXIC, perphiral action (irritates GI mucosa), orally, SE: lacrimation, salivation, cardiotoxic, give gastric lavage if no vomiting in 2 doses
Emetics general avoid when poison is corrosive, patient is unconscious, work in different ways (centrally or peripherally)
Chlorpromazine Thorazine, phenothiazine tranquilizer, depresses Central receptor trigger zone for vomiting SE: drowsiness, hypotension, tachycardia
Dimenhydrinate Gravol, antiemetic, antihistamine, work centrally and at H1 receptors in the middle ear, work best in motion sickness, most common
Diphenhydramine Benadryl, same as Gravol
Meclizine Antivert, same as Gravol
Promethiazine Phenergan, same as Gravol
Metaclopramide Reglan, works centrally and peripherally, may be given as a drip (short half-life), SE:changes in mentation/behavior, constipation, CI: GI obstruction, many drug interactions
Maropitant citrate Cerenia, antiemetic, blocks substance P in the CNS, given in chemotherapy, CI: GI blockage, toxin ingestion, can increase the risk of arrhythmias, use in caution in dogs with liver disease, highly protein bound
Antiemetics in general Give parenterally, most vomiting stopped by withholding food for 1-2 days, work centrally or peripherally, stop vomiting to counteract dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, chemotherapy, motion sickness
Anti-ulcer medications in general 1)H2 receptor antagonists (decrease HCl production) 2) proton pump inhibitors 3)antacids (bind and inactivate HCl) 4)Protect and coat GI from HCl
Cimetidine Tagamet, H2 receptor antagonist, SE: cardiac arrhythmias, headaches, mental confusion, may cause false positive on urine protein stick
Ranitidine Zantec, same as Tagamet
Famotidine Pepcid AC, same as Tagamet
Omeprazole Gastroguard, proton pump inhibitor, can be used in show horses
Aluminum/Mg hydroxide Maalox, Mylanta, Carmilax, Neo-Atropec, Milk of Magnesia, antacids. Non-absorbable SE: constipation or diarrhea, caution in renal patients, do NOT use within 2 hours of any other medication (esp Tetracyclines)
Sucralfate Carafate, gastromucosal protectant SE: constipation, reduces availability of other drugs, give 2 hours after or before
Misoprostol Cytotec, used in NSAID GIT irritation, protects by decreasing HCl production and increasing local mucosal defence, and increasing mucus protection in stomach and bicarb in the duodenum, protect GI in NSAID use!
Diphenoxylate Narcotic, Antidiarrheal, Lomotil, works by increasing segmented contractions, increasing intestinal absorption, and decreasing intestinal secretions SE: constipation, ileus, sedation, CNS excitement
loperamide Narcotic, antidiarrheal, Imodium, see Lomotil
Atropine Neo-Atropec, antidiarrheal, Anticholinergic, decrease GI motility (controversial), ionized in acidic environment = poor absorption orally, SE: dry mouth/eyes, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention
Methcopolamine Scour Solution, see atropine
Hyoscyamine Calf Scour Bolus, see atropine
Bismuth subsalicylate Pepto-Bismol, beware in cats! Protectant, coats and protects GI mucosa, +/- binds toxins, will bind with other oral meds, give last, not absorbed, acts locally SE: constipation, caution in Cats
Kaolin/Pectin Kaopectate, see Pepto Bismol
Activated Charcoal Charcodote, protectant, absorbent, antidiarrheal, see Pepto
Barium Antidiarrheal, see Pepto
Mg. Hydroxide Milk of Magnesia, Carmilax, Magnalax, Hyperosmotic Laxatives, used before SX for constipation, draw fluids into the colon (be certain of good hydration status before using!)
Mg. Sulfate Epsom Salts, see Mg. Hydroxide
Na Phosphate Salts Fleet Enema, see Mg. Hydroxide - NEVER USE IN CATS!!!
Psyllium Metamucil, bulk-producing agent, increase bulk and water in stool, laxative
Glycerine suppositories lubricant
Mineral oil lubricant
Petrolatum Lubricant, Laxatone, Felaxin
DSS (diotcyl Na sulfosuccinate Dioctol, Bloat-Aid, drentch, gel caps, surfactant/stool softener (laxative) better than lubricants because it penetrates and breaks up the fecal material and decreases surface tension to reduce gas/bubbling in frothy bloat
irritants Ex.Lax, castor oil, not recommended b/c cause hypermotility in response to local irritation = discomfort
Laxatives in general Act locally, not absorped after oral/rectal administration, work by several mechanisms 1) hyperosmotic, 2) bulking agent (fibre), 3) lubricants, 4) surfactants, 5) local irritants
Created by: jtwilks