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Soci Exam 2

Material Culture objects created in a given society: buildings, art, tools, toys, any tangible objects
Nonmaterial Culture : includes norms, laws, customs, ideas, and beliefs of a group of people
Characteristics of Culture (5) shared, learned, taken for granted, varies across time and place, and symbolic
Elements of Culture (4) Language Norms Belief Values
Norms specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation
Beliefs shared ideas held collectively by people within a given culture about what is true
Values abstract standards in a society or group that define ideal principles.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Language reflects diversity and inequality in society and it drives all culture
Dominant Culture most powerful group in a society. It is the culture that receives the most support from major institutions and constitutes major belief systems.
Subcultures groups whose values are norms of behavior differ to some degree from those of the dominant culture.
Countercultures are subcultures creates as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture
Sociological hegemony get the same message over and over with different perspectives
Personality how you behave in given situation
Self-identity how one defines oneself
Family paths for success, gender distinctions
Peers social approval, create internal hierarchy
School society expectations, role of social location
Sports Masculinity, femininity, sexuality
theorist of class socialization Annette Argues children should stay in class which they are born
Rite of passage ceremony or ritual that marks the transition of an individual from one role to another
anticipatory socialization learning of expectations associated with a role a person expects to enter in the future
Resocialization unlearn old behaviors and identity, accept new identity and behaviors
Conversion Transformation of identity, often tied to political or religious beliefs, changes in beliefs, practices, behaviors
Status social rank or position within society
Role: socially defined expectations for a specific social position
Achieved status effort, occupation, social class
Ascribed status race/ethnicity, gender, age, social class
Role set all the roles a person holds
Role strain demands of a single role are incompatible
Role conflict demands of two or more roles are incompatible
Primary Groups Long lasting, expressive needs, influence on self-development, Ex: Family/Friends
Secondary Groups Shorter duration. Instrumental needs, task oriented, less significance
Ideal type (Weber): Division of labor, specialized for experience, everyone treated the same, efficiency
Milgram Experiment shocking people, authority figures are powerful
Asch Experiment Individuals comply with groups even if they know it’s wrong
Social Change alteration of society over time
Micro change : interactions between people/ small scale
Macro changes gradual changes in many parts of society/ large scale
Cultural Diffusion transmission of elements from one society to another
Created by: haley.christel21