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Ch. 9 Holt

Nuclear Changes

TermDefinition
Radioactivity the process by which an unstable nucleus emits one or more particles or energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear Radiation the particles that are released from the nucleus during radioactivite decay.
Alpha Particle a positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons.
Beta Particle a charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay such as beta decay.
Gamma Ray the high-energy phonton emitted by a nucleus during fission and radioactive decay.
Half-life the time required for half of a smaple of a radioactive substance to disintegrate by radioactive decay or by natural processes.
Fission the process by which a nucleus splits into two or more fragments and releases neutrons and energy.
Nuclear Chain Reaction a continuous series of nuclear fission reactions.
Critical Mass the minimum mass of a fissionable isotope that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction.
Fusion the process in which light nuclei combine at extremely high temperatures, forming heavier nuclei and releasing energy.
Background Radiation the nuclear radiation that arises naturally from cosmic rays and from radioactive isotopes in the soil and air.
Rem the quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damaged to human tissue as 1 roentgen of high-voltage X-rays does.
Radioactive Tracer a radioactive material that is added to a substance so that its distribution can be detected later.
Created by: haasem