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Psychology Test #1

PY400: Perspectives, Research, Experiments, etc.

Behavioral Perspective A school of study that focuses on how we learn observable responses. Learning through reward and punishment/operative conditioning. Two different sides: Is it due to genetics or environmental factors?
Humanistic Perspective A school of study that focuses on how healthy people strive to reach their full potential, reaffirming other people. Maslow and Rogers
Psychodynamic Perspective Psychoanalysis. A school of study that focuses on how helping behavior springs from unconscious drives and inner conflicts. Freud.
Cognitive Perspective A school of study that focuses on how people think: storing, processing, and remembering data. (These processes have been sped up by technology)
Biological Perspective A school of study that focuses on physical structures and substances that affect behavior, like endorphins
Social-Cultural Perspective A school of study that focuses on how thinking or behavioral changes depend on context. Factors: culture, social norms, background, environment
Positive Psychology Study of optimal human functioning that allows individuals and communities to thrive. People are encouraged to find and utilize their strengths.
Evolutionary Perspective A school of study that combines biological, physiological, and social aspects of human behavior.
Scientific Method Learning through critical thinking, observation, experimentation, and analysis.
Observation A method that has potential for bias
Confirmation Bias Searching for info that confirms a preconceived notion.
Critical Thinking Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions that are presented.
Participant Bias The tendency for research participants to behave a certain way when they know that they are being observed.
Naturalistic Observation A type of observation in an attempt to minimize participant bias. Observe without manipulating or controlling the situation, and without being recognized.
Case Study Studying individuals in depth in hopes of revealing universal principals that can be applied to the general population. (PROBLEM)
Correlational Study Looking for a relationship between two factors. REMEMBER: Correlation is not causation, it simply shows the relationship. Positive: both variables increase or decrease together Negative: One variable increases, other decreases
Longitudinal Study Similar to a case study. Observe an individual/group for a long period of time.
Survey Questioning a random sample of people for information about their attitudes and behaviors. You must use a large number of people, don't write misleading questions, beware of social desirability. All can affect your outcome negatively.
Cross-Sectional Studies Very common, compare people of different ages at one time.
Scientific Experiment Process: Observation, question, hypothesis with operational definitions, research, findings. The researcher manipulates and controls certain variables to observe the effect on other variables
Double-blind study A study where neither the participants nor the observers know who is given a medication.
Blind study A study that uses both placebos and medication so that the participants do not know who receives the real medication, but the observers know.
Hypothesis A testable predication about the outcome of your research.
Operational Definition An explanation of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes.
Independent Variable The variable that the researcher will actively manipulate and, if the hypothesis is correct, that will cause a change in the independent variable.
Dependent Variable The variable that should show the effect of the independent variable.
Experimental Group The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable.
Control Group The participants in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable.
Random Assignment A procedure for creating groups that allows the researcher to control for individual differences among research participants.
Confounding Variable The variable in an experiment other than the independent variable that could produce a change in the dependent variable
Replicate To repeat the essence of a research study to see whether the results can be reliably reproduced
Ethics of Human Research 1. Informed Consent 2. The right to be protected from harm and discomfort 3. The right to confidentiality 4. The right to debriefing at completion
Reasons for Researching with Animals 1. Curiosity about animal behavior 2. Biological and behavioral similarities with humans 3. Many species develop quicker than humans, which makes longitudinal and generational studies easier 4. Easier to completely control the experiments
Created by: blittle10
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