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Physics Ch. 16

TermDefinition
Democritus atomist, created the Particle Theory of Matter
Aristotle created the Continuous Theory of Matter
Joseph Louis Proust Law of Definite Proportions
John Dalton core envelope model
J.J Thompson plum pudding model, discovered electrons
Rutherford rutherford model, discovered protons
Chadwick discovered neutrons
Niels Bohr planetary model (1st shell-2, 2nd shell-8, 3rd-18)
Quantum Model most current
Orbitals subregions of space around the nucleus of an atom
Protons the # determines what atom you have
Atomic Number the number of protons
Neutrons the # can be different in the the same element
Isotopes different numbers of neutrons
Isotopic Notation (mass) 14 C (atomic # ) 6
Mass Number the number of protons and neutrons
Nucleons protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Electrons SMALLEST mass,
If the atom is neutral over all... there will be an equal number of protons and electrons
(for electrons) The farther away from the nucleus... the more energy it has
Valence Electrons electrons in the highest energy level of an atom
Octet Rule an atom is happiest when it has 8 electrons in its valence shell
Atomic Mass the mass of the particle (weighted average of the masses of all the different isotopes)
nuclear Radiation radioactivity or the emission of rays and particles by unstable nuclei.
Nuclear Chemistry the study of changes in that occur in the atomic nuclei
Alpha Particles composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, positive charge
Beta Particles free nuclear electrons produced by decay on neutrons into protons and electrons, negative charge
Gamma Decay shedding of excess energy by emitting a gamma ray 0 y (number will stay the same ;) 0
Alpha Decay the atoms nucleus loses 2 protons and 2 neutrons 4 H (remember to subtract with these kinds of equations) 2
Beta Decay no change in the mass number, increase of atomic # by 1 0 e -1 (this one is really addition (+1) bc a negative + negative is a positive)
Nuclear Fission when a nucleus splits
Nuclear Fusion joining 2 nuclei together (Hydrogen bombs are made from this)
Created by: emma-sanders