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Fallacies

Logical Fallacies, definitions, examples

TermDefinition
Strawman A sham argument set up to be defeated. (When the person committing the fallacy sets up a faulty/distorted opposing argument and refutes it; the conclusion is flawed because the argument was not represented correctly.)
Special Pleading When someone declares themselves an exception to the rules when they are, in fact, not; citing a partially related reason or 'special case' gives the appearance of an argument.
Loaded Question A false, disputed, or question-begging presupposition; answering simply 'Yes' or 'No' affirms the presupposition.
Equivocation When a word/term/phrase changes meaning in an argument.
Misuse of Analogy When an analogy has more differences than similarities, it is a false/flawed analogy.
Circular Reasoning (Begging the Question) When the argument's conclusion is used in the argument to prove the conclusion.
Is/Ought Fallacy When the assumption is made that because things are (or are not) a certain way, they should always (or never) be that way. "Because it is, it ought to be."
Reductive Fallacy (reductio ad absurdum) Refuting an opponent's claim by extending the logic of the opponent's argument to a point of absurdity.
Chronological Snobbery The uncritical acceptance of current thought and the assumption that whatever is not in line with current thinking is not credible.
Argument to the Man (Ad Hominem) When a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of (or countered with) some irrelevant fact about the person presenting (or the author of) the claim or argument.
Appeal to the People (argumentum ad populum) A fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition is true because many or most people believe it.
Appeal to Ignorance The conclusion must be true, because there is no evidence against it. (Or, the conclusion must be false, because there is no evidence proving it.)
Fallacy of Extension (Straw Man's fraternal twin ;P) In order to counter an opponent's argument, an exaggerated, extreme caricature form of it is presented to demonstrate its weaknesses; the weaknesses are so magnified that it no longer resembles the original proposal.
Emotional Language Language used to provoke emotional responses in lieu of solid arguments.
Prestige Jargon Language that is used by a prestigious profession or group, which is difficult for others to understand.
 

 



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