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Biomechanics

Functional Anatomy

TermDefinition
3 forces acting on the body at all times 1. Gravity; 2. Ground reaction forces; 3. Muscular forces
impulse-momentum relationship the effect of a force over an interval of time
scalars described by magnitude only
vectors have a magnitude & a direction
vector resolution operation that replaces a single vector w/ 2 perpendicular vectors
biomechanics application of the laws, concepts, & tools of physics & engineering to various aspects of human motion; the how & the why of how we move
kinematics the study of bodies in motion with respect to space & time, without regard to the cause of the motion or the forces involved in the motion
establishing an origin usually at ground level, in a convenient location w/ respect to the motion studied, or at the center or corner of a force plate
moment a tendency for rotation; aka torque; indicates stress at joints
linear displacement change in position; direct distance from initial to final; a vector; net effect of motion
linear distance scalar value; length of the path
velocity vector; rate of change in position; how fast & in which direction is the movement occurring; displacement/time
speed scalar; how fast an object moves; distance/time
acceleration rate of change in linear velocity; change in velocity/change in time; measured in units of m/s^2
angular motion all parts of a body move through the same angle; same velocity, but each part of object is moving at a different speed.
angular distance the sum of all angular changes undergone by a rotating body
angular velocity the rate of change in angular position; angular displacement/time; measured in units of degrees or radians.
angular acceleration the rate of change in angular velocity; change in angular velocity/time; measured in units of degrees/sec or radians/sec
kinetics the how & the why behind a motion; the study of the forces that produce a motion
impulse force applied over time; =Ft (units N/s)
torque T= fd (product of F & the perpendicular distance from the F's line of acton to the axis); the angular equivalent of force; moment of force
center of mass point at which the sum of torques= 0
stress Force/unit of area over which the force acts
law of inertia an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force
law of acceleration F= ma (mass x gravity)
law of reaction for every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction
inertia a body's resistance to linear mass
moment of inertia a body's resistance to a change in angular motion; I= m (mass) x r^2 (radius^2)
angular law of acceleration torque; T= I (moment of inertia) x a (angular acceleration)
Created by: MeganFultz2