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Aquatic Therapy

specific density the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of an equal volume of water
specific density of water 1
older adults float better decrease in bone density and musc mass w/ age
buoyancy an upward thrust opposite the direction of gravity
Archimedes Principle when an object is immersed in water, it experiences an upward thrust equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
assistance of buoyancy when a movement is in the same direction as the force of bouyancy
support of buoyancy when a movement is perpendicular to the force of bouyancy
resistance of buoyancy when a movement opposes the force of buoyancy
factors affecting flotation ability musc/bone density to fat ratio; fear of water; trunk alignment in supine- optimal position when center of gravity is over center of buoyancy; hypertonicity- increases relative density of the limbs & changes center of gravity; hypotonicity.
factors affecting flotation ability part 2 proprioception- don't know where own cog is; amputation; less air in lungs decrs floatation.
streamline a cont flow of water in one direction in which all the molecules are traveling parallel to one another; resistance to movement is directly proportional to the velocity of movement; form of assistance
turbulence irreg movement of the fluid varying at any fixed point; form of resistance
wake the negative pressure behind a moving object; form of assistance
drag the tendency of a body to pulled in the opp direction of movement; a form of resistance
fluid dynamics (clinical implications) increased speed, increased drag causes increased work
hydrostatic pressure the pressure of the molecules of a fluid thrust upon each part of the SA of an immersed object
Pascal's Law fluid pressure is exerted equally on all SA's of an immersed body at rest a t a given depth; pressure increases w/ depth & density of the fluid
hydrostatic pressure (clin implications) decreases LE swelling & lymphedema; helps stabilize unstable joints; assists w/ expiration & resists inspiration;
benefits of an aquatic environment weight relief; support & ease of movement; easy pt handling; body warmth; motivation w/ ex groups;
indications for aquatic intervention decreased ROM; pain w/ movement; balance, proprioceptive, &/or coordination deficits; decreased strength; cv compromise or deconditioned; weight-bearing restriction; peripheral edema; gait deviations; motor learning deficits (incr's proprioception);
who would benefit from aquatic therapy? fibromyalgia; RA; OA; chronic pain; neuro conditions; bal deficits; orthopedic pt's; obesity
precautions well-controlled seizure disorder; recently healed surg incision; postural hypotension; significant vestib disorder; respiratory dysfxn; colostomy; neurological disorders (trouble tolerating high temps); fear of water; cardiac dysfxn; small wounds & lines
contraindications fever >100 degrees F; untreated infectious dz; surg incision w/ sutures or staples; open wound; incipient HF; uncontrolled seizure disorder; uncontrolled BP or PVD; uncontrolled bowel or bladder
therapeutic effects (not previously mentioned) maintain or incr joint ROM; incr;d flexibility; reduced musc spasms; musc re-education; assists w/ gait training & fxn'l activities; improved respiratory fxn; improved CV efficiency; incr endurance; increase venous return
physiological effects of warm water ideal water temp: 86-96; ideal air temp: 90; increases periph dilation & bld flow to muscs; increases metabolic rate; increases connective tissue elasticity; decreases musc tone; decreases sensitivity of free nerve endings
documentation of aquatic therapy amt of time; pt's response to tx in pool vs. land; equipment used; water depth; progress toward land-based goals; why/; relationship to fxn on land
Created by: MeganFultz2