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PY 101 Study Guide,

What is the definition/ description of a neuron? Neurons are individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit Most neurons communicate with each other, information. They are the basic links that permit communication within the nervous system, but some are designed to send/rec
What are the major parts of a neuron and what is the job of each part, including the axon, dendrite, myelin sheath, terminal buttons? The soma is the cell body that contains the nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. Dendrites are branchlike structures extending from the neuron that receive information. The axon is a long thin fiber that transmits signals away
What is the synapse? What do we call the chemicals secreted from the neuron into the synapse? The synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. The chemicals secreted from the neuron into the synapse are neurotransmitters that serve as messengers sending messages between the gaps of neurons and activating the n
What are the divisions of the central nervous system? The CNS is comprised of the brain and spinal cord lying within the skull and spinal column.
What are the two basic divisions of the nervous system? The peripheral nervous system- made up of all the nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord. It is the part that extends to the peripheral (outlying) parts of the body. It is subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The central
Discuss the “fight or flight” response. First studied by Cannon in 1932, it is the response of the sympathetic division autonomic nervous system within our peripheral nervous system, to respond to threat by preparing physically to attack (fight) or flee (flight) the enemy. For example: when yo
Which brain structure helps with the integration of sensory information?(*I assume she is interested in the thalamus by saying structure instead of segment) The midbrain is the segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and forebrain. It contains an area concerned with integrating sensory processes (like vision and hearing). The thalamus, located in the forebrain, not only relays sensory info.
In which area of the brain is the limbic system and thalamus located? They are both located in the largest and most complex section known as the forebrain. The thalamus is a relay station for sensory information to particular portions of the cortex. The limbic system consolidates memories, aids in learning fear and emotion
What would happen to memory ability is the hippocampus were destroyed? Without the hippocampus we would be unable to consolidate memories for factual information.
Which brain part is the largest and most complex? The cerebrum is the largest and most complex part of the human brain. It is responsible for learning, remembering, thinking, and consciousness.
What is the role of the corpus callosum? The corpus callosum is a thick band of fibers that is the major structure connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. It serves as a communication bridge between the right and left halves of the human brain. Be sure to watch the video I provide on 2/18 conc
Discuss behavioral genetics. What does this field study? Behavioral genetics concern studies examining to what extent people’s behavioral qualities are molded by their genes. Research on the genetic bases of behavior takes advantage of the degrees of genetic relatedness. If heredity influences a trait relatives
How many chromosomes are in each cell in the human body? With the exception of sex cells (sperm and eggs), every cell in the human body contains 46 chromosomes (or threadlike strands of DNA molecules carrying genetic info) in its nucleus. The chromosomes operate in 23 pairs, where one chromosome of each pair is
What is a gene? Genes are DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission. They are subsets of DNA. Each gene contains a particular set of instructions for a particular protein or function. The different combinations of genes that we poss
What do results from family, twin and adoption studies suggest in regard to the most influence on behavior being from genetics or environment? The studies to assess the impact of heredity on behavior suggest support for the notion that intelligence and personality traits such as extraversion are influenced by some degree of heredity. Any correlations found favoring heredity as more influential
What is the definition of sensation and the definition of perception? Sensation-the stimulation of sense organs. (the absorption of energy) Perception- the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input. (processing sensory input into something meaningful)
Discuss “just noticeable difference”. The smallest detectable change between sensory stimuli or differential threshold. It is used in signal detection, where the theory states the jnd is not an exact, constant, value. Situation, motivation, and perception are all factors that make the jnd n
Discuss accommodation in regard to vision. Accommodation in regard to vision occurs when the curvation of the lens adjusts to alter visual focus. When you focus on a close object, the lens of the eye gets fatter (rounder) to give you a clear image. When you focus on distant objects the lens flatte
Describe the structures of the eye through which light passes and the order in which light passes on its way to the visual receptor cells. Light passes through the cornea, pupil, and lens and falls on the light sensitive surface of the retina, where images of objects are reflected upside down. The lens adjusts its curvature to focus the images falling on the retina. The pupil regulates the
What are rods and cones? Light has to travel to the innermost layer of the retina before it reaches receptors to detect it. There are two types of receptors in the retina called rods and cones named for their shape. There are 100-125 million rods and 5-6.4 million cones per pers
Discuss visual constancy. What is an example? This is a tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input. Constancies help to impose some order on the surrounding world. Size, shape, brightness, hue and location constancies exist. An example is a person app
Describe the moon illusion. The moon illusion is an example of how the brain perceives the size of the moon in relation to its surroundings. It seems bigger when it is closer to the horizon because of visual reference points that we compare it to. Our brain is used to objects moving
Describe the parts of the ear and the order in which sound waves pass on the way to the auditory receptor cells. Sound travels in waves entering the auditory canal and forcing air pressure to create vibrations on the eardrum that causes oscillations in the tiny bones of the inner ear. The oscillations are magnified and turned into pressure waves moving through a li
What is the function of the middle ear? The middle ear is made of three tiny bones (stirrup, anvil, hammer) known as the ossicles that form a lever system. It amplifies tiny changes in air pressure and sends it on to the cochlea in the inner ear.
What is gustation and what are the receptor cells for gustation? Where are these receptor cells located? The gustatory system refers to the sensory system for taste. The gustatory receptors are clusters of taste cells found in the taste buds that line the trenches around tiny bumps on the tongue.
What insulating material encases some axons? myelin sheath
When you see something the neural impulses travel through what before reaching the occipital lobe? Thalamus
As you age, your lens loses its ability to become fat and round, this causes what to happen? Accommodation of the eye is the ability of the human eye to see sharply all objects which are located at various distances in front of the eye depending on the changes of massiveness of the optical system of the eye. Also, the process by which the eye's l
What field studies the influence of genetics on behavioral traits? Behavioural genetics
What receives info from neurons and what transmits the info to neurons? Interneuron
Which brain structure plays a role in integrating sensory info? Bottom-Up Processing
What are the 2 most basic divisions of the nervous system? The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Where are the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system located? Forebrain
The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functions. True
Which is not a gland of the endocrine system? Testosterone
Chemical substances released by the endocrine system to serve as messengers to the endocrine system are: Hormones
Every cell in the human body except for cells has 46 chromosomes. True
Are threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry information? Chromosomes
These DNA segments serve as the key functional units in heredity transmission. Genes
Which study provides the best feedback in regard to nature versus nurture? twins reared apart
These are individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information. neurons
The peripheral nervous system is composed of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. True
The two parts of the human nervous system are the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. True
This part of the autonomic nervous system deals with mobilizing involuntary resources like in an emergency when we must react with the fight or flight response. Sympathetic
This portion of the autonomic nervous system allows the body to conserve energy through decreased respiration and heart rate. Parasympathetic
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. True
The cerebrum is the bridge of fibers passing info between the two cerebral hemispheres. False
The corpus callosum is responsible for sensing, thinking, learning, emotion, consciousness, and voluntary movement. False
The thalamus is a structure in the forebrain through which all sensory info must pass to get to the cerebral cortex. True
The hypothalmus is a regulator of biological needs like fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating True
The limbic system is located on the edge and contains pleasure centers. True
The brain being flexible and constantly evolving to repair injuries or form new neurons is referred to as Plasticity
This area is associated with speech production, rather than language comprehension. Broca's area
The left hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body. False
Sensation is the selection, organization and interpretation of sensory input, where as, perception is the stimulation of sense organs. False
Rods are specialized visual receptors that play a key role in peripheral vision and night vision, while cones are specialized for daylight vision and color. True
Which provides a sense of completeness in vision when gaps exist in a figure Closure
Which type of deafness is due to damage within the hair cells or auditory nerve? Conductive
This type of hearing loss is most treatable by hearing aids and results from fluid, blockage, or damage to the outer and/or middle ear. Conductive
Which system refers to our sense of smell that is stimulated by chemical substances? Offactory
Darwin said blushing is peculiar because only human faces contain veins that respond to adrenaline. True
The reticular activating system at the base of the brain filters out data that we feel is unimportant allowing us to focus. True
Which is not one of the four lobes of the brain? Limbic
Created by: Cardinal75
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