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Chpt. 14 Engine Bottom End Construction

What are engine cylinder blocks normally made of? cast iron or aluminum
Does cast iron or aluminum dissipate heat better? aluminum
If you want to reduce the weight and increase fuel economy what would use to make a block? use aluminum blocks
Dry Sleeve relatively thin and is not exposed to engine coolant
Wet Sleeve is exposed to engine coolant and must withstand combustion pressure and heat without the added support of the cylinder block
What is line boring? a machining operation that cuts a series of holes through the block for the crankshaft bearings
What is a slipper skirt? provides clearance between the piston and the crankshaft counterweights
Define piston diameter. the distance measured across the sides of the piston
What is meant by the term pin hole diameter? the distance measured across the inside of the piston hole pin
What is a ring groove width? the distance measured froml the top to the bottom of the ring groove
What is the purpose of piston taper? is used to maintain the correct piston-to-cylinder clearance
What does a piston head shape generally refer to? the contour of the piston top
The head of a flat-top piston is parallel with what surface? the blocks deck surface
Define valve reliefs. small indentations either cast or machined into the piston crown to porvide ample piston-to-valve clearance
What kind of piston is a two-piece design controlled by engine oil pressure? variable compression piston
What piston is slightly out-of-round when viewed from the top? cam ground
Automotive pistons usually use 2 different rings. How many of each would you use and what are they called? 2 compression rings 1 oil ring
What do compression rings do? prevent leakage into the crankcase and wipe oil from the cylinder walls
Explain ring seating the initial ring wear that makes the ring perfectly match the surface of the cylinder
Name two basic oil ring designs rail-spacer type and one-piece type
What is the function of a piston's oil ring? to keep the crankcase oil out of the combustion chamber
What is the piston ring width? the distance from the top of the ring to the bottom of the ring
What is the piston ring radial wall thickness? the distance from the face of the ring to its inner wall
What is the piston ring gap? the distance between the ends of the ring when installed in the cylinder
When are soft ring coating desirable? when they are used in cylinders that are slightly worn
When are chrome or moly hard ring coatings used? in new and freshly machined cylinders that are perfectly round
What are piston pins normally made of? case-hardened steel
What is case-hardening? a heating and cooling process that increases the wear resistance of the piston pin.
What kind of pin is forced tightly into the connecting rod's small end? press-fit
What kind of pin is secured by snap rings and is free to rotate in both the rod and piston? full-floating pin
What is the purpose of piston pin offset? helps quieten the piston during use
What are most connecting rods made of? steel
Explain low-inertia parts are light parts that will accelerate quickly
What is the purpose of a hole machined through the entire length of a drilled connecting rod? supplies oil to the piston pin
Connecting rod numbers used for what? to ensure proper location of each connecting rod in the engine
Define powdered metal forging process that forms the rough shape of the part out of metal powder before final shaping in a powerful forge.
What are engine crankshafts usually made of? cast iron or forged steel
Crankshafts in turbocharged or diesel engines are made of? forged steel
Where does the oil enter the crankshaft at? main bearings
With a V-type engine, how many connecting rods bolt to each rod journal? two
Define a fully countweighted crankshaft has weights formed opposite every rod journal
Define a partially counterweighted crankshaft has weights formed opposite the journals in the center portion of the shaft only
What are the three basic types of engine bearings? camshaft bearing, connecting rod bearing. crankshaft main bearing
What is bearing load strength? the bearings ability to withstand pounding and crushing during engine operation
What is bearing conformability? the bearing ability to adjust to imperfections in the journal surface
Whati is bearing embedability the bearings ability to absorb dirt, metal, or other hard particles
What is bearing corrosion resistance? the bearings ability to withstand being acted on by acids, water and other impurities in the eingine oil
What is the purpose of bearing crush? used to prevent the bearing from spinning inside its bore during engine operation
What is bearing spread? used on split-type engine bearings to hold the bearing in place during assembly
Describe a standard bearing. has the original dimensions specified by the engine manufacturer for a new, unworn, or unmachined crankshaft
What is an undersized bearing used for? on a crankshaft journal that has been machined to a smaller diameter
What do bearing locating lugs or dowels do? positon split bearings in their bores
Connecting rods and main bearing are available in what undersizes? 0.010", 0.020", 0.030", 0.040"
How are engine bearings lubricated? bearing oil holes or grooves in the engine bearings allow oil to flow through the block and the clearance between the bearing and the journal
What is the function of a main thrust bearing? limit crankshaft end play
Describe the purpose of a rear main bearing oil seal prevents oil leakage around the back of the crankshaft
Name three types of rear main bearing oil seals two-piece neoprene seal, one-piece neoprene seal, wick or rope seal
What is a rope (wick) oil seal? a woven rope filled with graphite
What does select fit mean? some engine parts are selected and installed in a certain position to improve the fit or clearance between parts
What are balancer shafts used for in some engines? to cancel the vibrating forces produced by crankshaft, piston and rod movement
Created by: mechanics



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