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Population Terms

demography the study of the changing of human population
overpopulation too many people or animals living in one area
arithmetic density population density measured by the number of people per unit area of land
physiological density the number of people per unit of area of land suitable for agriculture
agricultural density the number of farmers to the total amount of agricultural land
crude birth rate the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people in a society
crude death rate the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people in a society
natural increase rate the percentage growth of a population in a year; calculated as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
doubling time the number of years needed to double a population
total fertility rate the average number of children a woman will have throughout her fertile lifespan (puberty - 45 years old)
infant mortality rate the total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society
life expectancy the average number of years an individual is expected to live
demographic transition model (DTM) the process of change in a society's population
agricultural revolution the time when human beings first started domesticating plants and animals
industrial revolution when advancements are being made in technology
medical revolution the abrupt advance of medical knowledge
zero population growth a decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
population pyramid a bar graph representing distribution of population by age and sex
primary economic activity activities where natural resources are extracted from the Earth
infrastructure the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area
subsistence farming farming that is used only for the gain of the one farming the land
mechanization to operate with or by machines
replacement babies a child who is conceived to replace a deceased child
famine extreme hunger
epidemiology science that is concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
epidemic the rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a short period of time
pandemic an epidemic of an infectious disease spreading to human populations across a large region such as continents
phenomenon something that can be observed or studied
health care the maintaining/restoring of health by the treatment and prevention of disease by trained professionals
outliers a person/thing that’s not attached to the main body or system
family planning intended to determine the number and spacing of one’s children
contraceptives a device or drug used to prevent pregnancy (birth control)
economics the part of something that relates to money
politics the art/science of government
sociocultural a combination of social and cultural factors
advantageous providing an advantage (beneficial)
alleviate to make easier to deal with
stabilization to make firm
education the art of learning new skills and knowledge
primary education elementary school (grades 1-8)
secondary education high school (grades 9-12)
higher education college; university
gender empowerment the measure of gender equality
integrated to combine two parts in a whole
age dependency ratio a measure showing the number of dependents (aged 0-14 and over the age of 65) to the total population (aged 15-64)
sex ratio the distribution of the sexes in a population, measured as the number of males per 100 females
baby boomers an individual born during the Post-World War II (1946-1964)
indicative showing or signifying something
urbanization a population shift from rural to urban areas
Created by: cameronalexis