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Unit 8

Emotion & Motivation

Motivation The process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses.
Drives Internal states that arise in response to a disequilibria in an animal's physiological needs.
Homeostasis Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body.
Incentives External stimuli or rewards that motivate behavior, although these do not relate directly to biological needs.
Instincts Preprogrammed tendencies that are essential to a species' approval.
Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder in which and individual weighs less than 85% of her or his expected weight but still controls eating because of a self-perception of obesity.
Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by binge eating, followed by measures to purge the body of excess calories.
Thematic Apperception Test A projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about these.
Need for achievement An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking.
Attributions Judgments about the causes of outcomes.
Hierarchy of needs Maslow's view that basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved. The needs progress from basic biological needs to the need for transcendence.
Emotion A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant.
Amygdala The part of the limbic system that controls emotion, aggression, and the formation of emotional memory.
James-Lange theory of emotion A peripheral-feedback theory of emotion stating that an eliciting stimulus triggers a behavorial response that sends different sensory and motor feedback to the brain and creates the feeling of a specific emotion.
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion A theory stating that an emotional stimulus produces two occurring reactions occurring simultaneously-arousal and the experience of emotion-that do not cause each other.
Cognitive appraisal theory of emotion With respect to emotions, the process through which physiological arousal is interpreted with respect to circumstances in the particular setting in which it is being experienced.
Yerkes-Dodson law A correlation between task performance and optimal level of arousal.
Stressor An internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress.
Fight or Flight Response A sequence of internal activities triggered when an organism is faced with a threat; prepares the body for combat and struggle or for running away to safety.
General adaptation syndrome The pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to a continuing threat by almost any serious stressor.
Psychosomatic disorders Physical disorders aggravated by or primarily attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes.
Life-change units In stress research, the measure of stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period.
Posttraumatic stress disorders Physical disorders aggravated by or primarily attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes.
Created by: Mr.Knock