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Chapter 32

Auscultation The act of listening to body sounds, typically with a stethoscope, to assess varies organs throughout the body
Bruit An abnormal sound or murmur heard on auscultation of an organ, vessel, or gland
Clubbing Abnormal enlargement of the distal phalanges (finger/toes) associated with cyanotic heart disease or advanced chronic pulmonary disease
Colonoscopy A procedure in which a fiberoptic scope is used to examine the large intestine
Electrocardiogram A graphic record of electrical conduction through the heart
Emphysema The pathologic accumulation of air in the alveoli, which results in alveolar destruction and overall oxygen deprivation; in the lungs, the bronchioles become plugged with mucus and lose elasticity
Gait The manner or style of walking
Hematopoiesis The formation and development of blood cells in the red bone marrow
Intercellular a term referring to the area between cells
Intracellular a term referring to the area within the cell membrane
Manipulation movement or exercising of a body part by means of an externally applied force
Mastication Chewing
Murmur An abnormal sound heard during auscultation of the heart that may or may not have a pathogenic origin; it is associated with valve disease or a congestive heart defect
Nodules Small lumps, lesions, or swelling that are felt when the skin is palpated
Palpation the use of touch during physical examination to assess the size, consistency, and location or certain body parts
Peristalsis The rhythmic contraction of involuntary muscles lining the gastrointestinal tract
Sclera The white part of the eye that forms the orbit
Transillumination Inspection of a cavity or organ by passing light through its walls
Trauma Physical injury or a wound caused by an external force or violence
Vasoconstriction Contraction of the muscles lining blood vessels, which narrows the lumen
Cell The basic unit of life
100 trillion Estimated that the human body is made up of how many cells?
4 types of tissue within the body Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Epithelial Tissue Makes up the skin, glands, and linings of the body parts and organs
Epithelial tissue is classified according to shape: Squamous(flat), Cuboidal(square), Columnar(long\narrow),Transitional(Various shapes that can stretch)
Connective tissue Supports and binds other body tissue
Types of connective tissue include: Collagen, bone, cartilage, adipose, ligaments, tendons, blood, & lymph
Muscle Tissue Produces movement
Types of muscle tissue include: Skeletal(striated, voluntary), Cardiac(striated, involuntary), & smooth(non-striated, involuntary)
Nervous Tissue Conducts nerve impulses between the periphery and central nervous system
Nervous tissue is made up of : Neurons and supportive structures known as neuroglial cells
Organs Composed of two or more types of tissue bound together. May have more than one function. May be part of more than one system.
Systems A body system is composed of several organs and their associated structures.
The instruments used in a physical exam: Allow the physician to see, feel, inspect, and listen to parts of the body
Physical examinations are usually preformed: From the head to the feet
Opthalmoscope Used to inspect the inner structures of the eye
Tongue depressor A flat, wooden blade used to hold down the tongue during a throat exam
Otoscope Used to examine the external auditory canal/tympanic membrane
Nasal Speculum used to examine the lining of the nose, nasal membranes, and internal septum
Tuning fork Used to check the patients auditory acuity and to test bone vibration
Tape measure measuring device, typically used to assess length/head circumference of infants or wound size
Stethoscope used during auscultation to hear internal body sounds
Reflex hammer used to strike the tendons of the knew and elbows to test neurological reflexes
Gloves used whenever the potential exists for contact with any body fluid or contaminates items exists
Additional supplies guaze, cotton balls, cotton-tipped applicators, specimen containers, hemoccult packets
Inspection Ranges from focusing on the patients general appearance, to more detailed observations such as body contour, gait, symmetry, visible injuries, deformities, tremors, rash & color changes
Percussion Involves tapping or striking the body to elict sounds/vibrations
Mensuration The process of measuring
FOWLERS POSITION THE PATIENT SITS ON THE EXAM TABLE WITH THE HEAD OF THE TABLE ELEVATED TO 90 DEGREES, OR HE OR SHE SITS ON THE EDGE. This position is useful for examining the head, neck, and chest as well as for patients with orthopnea. (Drape placement varies)
SEMI-FOWLERS POSITION THE HEAD OF THE TABLE IS PLACED AT A 45 DEGREE ANGLE. Useful for postoperative exams, patients with breathing disorders, patients with elevated temperatures, or those suffering from head trauma. (The drape should cover the entire patient from nipple line)
SUPINE (HORIZONTAL RECUMBENT) POSITION THE PT LIES FLAT WITH THE FACE UPWARD&THE LOWER LEGS SUPPORTED BY THE TABLE EXTENTION. Used for examination of the front of the body including the breast, heart, & abdominal organs. ( Pt.s gown should open down the front & drape should cover everything)
DORSAL RECUMBENT POSITION THE PT LIES FACE UP W/ KNEES FLEXED. FEET FLAT ON TABLE. Used for exam of rectal, vaginal, and perineal areas. Pt completely draped w/ drape in diamond shape until physician is present.
SIMS (LATERAL) POSITION Pt on left side(left arm and shoulder drawn back behind body). Used mainly for rectal exams, instillation of rectal medication, and some perineal and pelvic exams.
Prone position Pt lies face down on the table. (used for examination of back and for certain surgeries)
Created by: meganhussey18



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