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CNS Drugs

QuestionAnswer
Class of drugs for anxietic disorders (2) & examples Benzodiazepines eg. Midazolam, lorazepam and diazepam. Non- benzodiazepines eg. Zolpidem
Benzodiazepine: Mode of action Binds to specific sites in the CNS and potentiates GABA (an inhibitory neurotransmitter) actions by increasing the frequency of Cl channel opening. This moderates neural transmission and reduces anxiety. It is GABA dependent.
Benzodiazepine: Characteristics It has short acting (eg. midazolam, which is cleared from the body within 2-4h), intermediate (eg. lorazepam which is cleared in 8h) and long acting (diazepam, cleared in 16h) drugs.
Benzodiazepine: Characteristics It has short acting (eg. midazolam, which is cleared from the body within 2-4h), intermediate (eg. lorazepam which is cleared in 8h) and long acting (diazepam, cleared in 16h) drugs.
Benzodiazepine: Uses Anxiety disorders, sedation before gastroscopy.
Benzodiazepine: Uses Anxiety disorders, sedation before gastroscopy.
Benzodiazepine: Toxicity Drowsiness, increased reaction time, decreased motor skills, anterograde amnesia. Affects breathing and BP. Paradoxical effects are rare and can include irritability, garrulousness, hallucination. Tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, neonatal toxicity.
Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics: MOA Same as benzodiazepine
Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics: Toxicity Withdrawal anxiety, abuse potential, tolerance, dependence.
Class of drugs for insomnia: Anti histamines (mostly 1st generation)
Anti-histamines: MOA Binds to H1 receptor, eliminating histamine actions by competitive inhibition.
Class of drugs for insomnia: Anti histamines (mostly 1st generation)
Anti-histamines: Uses Used to relieve nasal congestion, allergic response and hypnotic agents.
Anti-histamines: MOA Binds to H1 receptor, eliminating histamine actions by competitive inhibition.
Anti-histamines: Toxicity Dry mouth, increased appetite (can lead to obesity), blurring of vision and constipation.
Classes of drugs for depression: (2) Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, eg. Fluoxetine, paroxetine. Tricyclic anti-depressants eg. Imipramine, amitriptyline.
SSRIs: MOA Inhibits serotonin re-uptake transporter, enabling neurotransmitter present at synapse to continue acting on post-synaptic neurons. This corrects the monoamine deficiency.
SSRIs: Toxicity Anxiety, weight gain/loss (depending if the person eats alot or too little when he is depressed), headache, nausea, sexual dysfunction (decreased libido and anorgasmia)
TCAs: MOA Inhibits both norepinephrine and serotonin re-uptake transporters.
TCAs:Toxicity Used to be first line drug, but overtaken by SSRIs due to cardiac effects. Eg. Tachycardia, arrythmias, postural hypertension. Causes anti-cholinergic effects eg. constipation, blurring of vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, sedation and fatigue.
TCAs: MOA Inhibits both norepinephrine and serotonin re-uptake transporters.
TCAs:Toxicity Used to be first line drug, but overtaken by SSRIs due to cardiac effects. Eg. Tachycardia, arrythmias, postural hypertension. Causes anti-cholinergic effects eg. constipation, blurring of vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, sedation and fatigue.
Created by: Aurorahx