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Quinn science O2

The Nature of Sound

wave a disturbance that transmits energy thruogh matter or space
medium a substance through which a wave can travel
outer ear the part of the ear that acts as a funnel to direct sound waves into the middle ear, pinna collects sound waves
middle ear the part of the ear where the amplitude of a sound vibratinis increased, hammer anvil, and stirrup act as levers
inner ear movement of the liquid in the cochlea causes tiny hair cells to bend and stimulate nerves that send electrical signals to the brain for interpretation
pitch high or low a sound is percieved to be, depends on frequency
infrasonic frequencies of a sound that are lower than 20 Hz
ultrasonic frequencies of a sound that are higher than 20,000 Hz
Doppler effect the apparent change in the frequency of a sound caused by the motion of either the listener or the source of the sound
loudness how loud or soft a sound is percieved to be, depends on amplitude
decibel most common unit used to express loudness of a sound
reflection the bouncing back of a wave after it strikes a barrier
echo the bouncing back of a sound wave after it strikes a barrier, depends on how smooth and hard the surface is
echolocation the proces of using reflected sound waves to find objects
interference a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap, can increase or decrease the loudness of a sound
sonic boom the explosive sound heard when a shock wave from an object traveling faster thatn the speed of sound reaches a person's ears
standing wave a wave that forms a stationary pattern in which portions of the wave do not move and other portions move with a large amplitude
resonance frequency at which standing waves are made
diffraction bending of waves around barriers of through openings, depends on the wavelength and size of barrier or opening
sound quality the result of several pithes blending together through interference
noise any undesired, sound, especially nonmusical sound, that includes a random mix of pitches
vibration the complete back and forth motion of an object, cycle, includes both a compression and rarefaction
tinnitus hearing loss resulting from damage to the hair cells and nerve endings in the cochlea
more dense faster a sound wave moves
more elastic faster a sound wave moves
higher temperature higher it is the faster a sound wave moves
hertz the unit used to express frequency, one is equal to one cycle per second
oscilloscoope a device used to graph representations of sound waves
sonar type of ecolocation, sound navigation and ranging
ultrasonography a medical procedure that uses echos from ultrasonic waves to "see" inside a patient's body without perfoming surgery
wind instruments produces sound when a vibration is created at one end of an air column and creates a standing wave in it, woodwind, and brass, examples are french horn trombone, sax, and oboe
percussion instruments produce sound when struck, larger the insturment the lower the pitch, examples are drums, cymbol, and triangle
string instruments produce sound when their strings vibrate after being plucked or bowed, some examples are guitar, banjo, and violin
compression the region of higher density or pressure in a wave
rarefaction the region lower density or pressure in a wave
longitudinal wave a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path the wave travels
mechanical wave a wave that requires a medium in order to transfer energy
fundamental the lowest resonant frequency
overtone higher frequency than the fundamental
refraction the bending of a wave at it passes at an angle from one medium to another
Created by: cquinnd15.org