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# Midterm Research

Question | Answer |
---|---|

When to use non-parametric statistics? | very severe violation of assumptions, DV is not interval or ratio level. |

Logic of hypothesis testing? | state the null adopt an alpha level test the null reject or fail to reject the null. |

TWO ways that researchers can control for the effects of extraneous variables or turn them into control variables? | build the variable as a factor--sample the control for them by limiting the sample. OR Randomly assign and do ANCOVA. |

List the criteria for evaluating quantitative methods. | generalizability control of error minimize threats to internal and external valitidy replicability |

Describe data interpretation approaches in single subject designs | visual inspection statistics |

3 types of mixed methods. | simultaneous. quan then qual. qual then quan. |

Difference between true experiment and quasiexperiment | both have control of IV. true is RANDOM assignment. quasi is NOT random assighment |

Describe general procedures for organizing and “reducing” qualitative data | gather data, code transcribed data for categories, identify themes, determine the pervasiveness of themes, interconnect themes |

List several of the “units” of focus for qualitative research | roles, relationships, groups, organizations, habitats, subculture |

Types of qualitative sampling | representative, purposive (e.g., maximal variation), snowball |

Identify factors which influence the necessary sample size for a study | number of groups, desired power and alpha, desired effect size, |

CIPP evaluation model | Context (when where) Input (what is going into the program) Process (how does it happen) Product (outcome--what do we get out of it) |

Practical significance | Effect Size needs to be above---0.25 to be considered practically significant |

Statistically significany | needs to be below .05 or .01. |

What does the ALPHA value measure? | tells you how many times out of 100 is acceptable to be due to chance. More than that--not statistically significant. |

Phenomenology | telling a story (narrative) |

Ethnography | studying a culture, a group |

Positives to Random Selection | Have the populations, the group you wanna study. Then selects the random group. Allows a lot of external validity (our sample reflects our population) |

Positives to Ramdom Assignment | Once you have your sample Randomly assigning them to 3 groups Benefits: controlled for extraneous variables |

APA definition of Evidence Based Practice | combination between research and clinical judgement. (must have literature and support from clinicians) |

Null Hypothesis | Stating that there is NO relationship between what you are studying. |

Alternative Hypothesis | Thinking that treatment A is better than treatment B. You may actually test the null hypothesis, but this is what you actually think. |

Sampling Error | Statistical analysis account for this, the sample group doesn't EXACTLY represent the actual population data. |

Sampling Bias | NOT OK. THIS IS BAD. Sampling Bias is when you organize a group to get the results you want |

Sample vs Population | Sample is a smaller group to represent the population. |

Ways to fix violations of "assumptions of independence" | treat the group as an individual lower the alpha value to .01 (multiply the p value by 4) |

Types of Quantitative Sampling | Random Stratified Cluster Convience |

What is random quantitative sampling? | I know the population, I pull randomly from the population |

What is stratified quantitative sampling? | My sample has the same representations (example:% white, % AA %hispanic) as the whole population |

What is cluster quantitative sample? | Randomly sample groups (example: classes at UAB.) |

What is convenience quantitative sample? | I sample who is in easy for me to sample. CANT generalize this. BAD NEWS! |

Standard Deviation and Variance both tell you... | how far ON THE AVERAGE out from the mean. |

Standard Deviation and Variance are difference because | Variance is square. |

VALIDITY | |

RELIABILITY | |

Positively Skewwed | the mean is being pulled higher....due to outliers |

Negatively skewwed | the mean is being pulled lower...due to the outliers. |