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Midterm Research

When to use non-parametric statistics? very severe violation of assumptions, DV is not interval or ratio level.
Logic of hypothesis testing? state the null adopt an alpha level test the null reject or fail to reject the null.
TWO ways that researchers can control for the effects of extraneous variables or turn them into control variables? build the variable as a factor--sample the control for them by limiting the sample. OR Randomly assign and do ANCOVA.
List the criteria for evaluating quantitative methods. generalizability control of error minimize threats to internal and external valitidy replicability
Describe data interpretation approaches in single subject designs visual inspection statistics
3 types of mixed methods. simultaneous. quan then qual. qual then quan.
Difference between true experiment and quasiexperiment both have control of IV. true is RANDOM assignment. quasi is NOT random assighment
Describe general procedures for organizing and “reducing” qualitative data gather data, code transcribed data for categories, identify themes, determine the pervasiveness of themes, interconnect themes
List several of the “units” of focus for qualitative research roles, relationships, groups, organizations, habitats, subculture
Types of qualitative sampling representative, purposive (e.g., maximal variation), snowball
Identify factors which influence the necessary sample size for a study number of groups, desired power and alpha, desired effect size,
CIPP evaluation model Context (when where) Input (what is going into the program) Process (how does it happen) Product (outcome--what do we get out of it)
Practical significance Effect Size needs to be above---0.25 to be considered practically significant
Statistically significany needs to be below .05 or .01.
What does the ALPHA value measure? tells you how many times out of 100 is acceptable to be due to chance. More than that--not statistically significant.
Phenomenology telling a story (narrative)
Ethnography studying a culture, a group
Positives to Random Selection Have the populations, the group you wanna study. Then selects the random group. Allows a lot of external validity (our sample reflects our population)
Positives to Ramdom Assignment Once you have your sample Randomly assigning them to 3 groups Benefits: controlled for extraneous variables
APA definition of Evidence Based Practice combination between research and clinical judgement. (must have literature and support from clinicians)
Null Hypothesis Stating that there is NO relationship between what you are studying.
Alternative Hypothesis Thinking that treatment A is better than treatment B. You may actually test the null hypothesis, but this is what you actually think.
Sampling Error Statistical analysis account for this, the sample group doesn't EXACTLY represent the actual population data.
Sampling Bias NOT OK. THIS IS BAD. Sampling Bias is when you organize a group to get the results you want
Sample vs Population Sample is a smaller group to represent the population.
Ways to fix violations of "assumptions of independence" treat the group as an individual lower the alpha value to .01 (multiply the p value by 4)
Types of Quantitative Sampling Random Stratified Cluster Convience
What is random quantitative sampling? I know the population, I pull randomly from the population
What is stratified quantitative sampling? My sample has the same representations (example:% white, % AA %hispanic) as the whole population
What is cluster quantitative sample? Randomly sample groups (example: classes at UAB.)
What is convenience quantitative sample? I sample who is in easy for me to sample. CANT generalize this. BAD NEWS!
Standard Deviation and Variance both tell you... how far ON THE AVERAGE out from the mean.
Standard Deviation and Variance are difference because Variance is square.
Positively Skewwed the mean is being pulled higher....due to outliers
Negatively skewwed the mean is being pulled lower...due to the outliers.
Created by: keh0008
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