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# Module 3

### Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Theory | An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. |

Hyptohesis | A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. |

Operational Definition | A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as "what an intelligence test measures." |

Replication | Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants sand circumstances. |

Case Study | An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. |

Survey | A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group. |

Population | All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples my be drawn. |

Random Sample | A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. |

Correlation | A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. |

Correlation Coefficient | A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1). |

Scatterplot | A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation. |

Experiment | |

Experimental Group | |

Control Group | |

Random Assignment | |

Double-Blind Procedure | |

Placebo Effect | |

Independent Variable | |

Confounding Variable | |

Dependent Variable | |

Mode | |

Mean | |

Median | |

Range | |

Standard Deviation | |

Normal Curve | |

Statistical Significance |