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Pharmacology

2nd Exam Drugs

Drug Cards
ANTIVIRAL AGENTS Used to treat viruses other than HIV. Includes chickenpox,shingles,herpes, influenza,cytomegalovirus, RSV.
ANTIRETROVIRAL AGENTS USED TO TREAT HIV.
ACYCLOVIR (ZOVIRAX) topical, parenteral or oral agent against herpes simplex & zoster, CMV, & Epstein Barr.
OSELTAMIVIR (TAMIFLU) antiviral drug used specifically for Influenza A & B.Start within 2 days of onset of symptoms.Side effects headache,vertigo,nausea, and vomiting.
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy. Combination of drug therapy. 2-3 NRTI's, 2 NRTI'S plus one protease inhibitors. NRTI plus an NNRTI one or two protease inhibitors.
NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NRTI'S) Block the activity of the enzyme "reverse transcriptase" which helps in the synthesis of new viral molecules.
ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) Also called Retrovir help to improve T-cell counts. Primary side effect is bone marrow suppression. Oral twice a day, IV.
PROTEASE INHIBITORS (PI'S) Inhibit the protease retroviral enzyme.
INDINAVIR (Crixavan) increase CD4 cell counts
FUSION INHIBITORS suppress the fusion process where a virion is attached to the outer membran of a host T cell before entry into the cell & subsequent viral replication.
ENFUVIRTIDE (FUZEON) used in combination with other agents. Injectable SQ. Causes pain at the injection site.
SNS SYMPATHETIC DIVISION Preganglionic nerve releases Ach to Nicotinic receptors of postganglionic nerve which releases norephinephrine to alpha & beta receptor sites on cells of the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands. Fiber types Adrenergic,
Receptors Preganglionic-Nicotinic, Postganglionic-Alpha & Beta Chemical Messengers Preganglionic-Ach, Postganglionic-Norepinephrine, Characteristics two sets of nerves. First is short, second is long.
SNS SYMPATHOADRENAL BRANCH Preganglionic nerve releases Ach to cells in adrenal medulla which secrete epinephrine & norepinephrine into the blood stream where they are distributed to alpha & beta receptor sites on cells of the smooth muscle,cardiac muscle & glands. Fiber types
Adrenergic, Receptors Preganglionic-Nicotinic, Postganglionic-Alpha & Beta, Chemical messengers Preganglionic-Ach, Postganglionic-Norepinephrine, Characteristics two sets of nerves. First is short, second is long.
PSNS PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION Preganglionic nerve releases Ach to Nicotinic receptors of postganglionic nerve which releases Ach to the muscarinic receptor sites on the smooth muscle,cardiac muscle & glands.Fiber types Cholinergic. Receptors Preganglionic-Nicotinic,
Postganglionic-Muscarinic, Chemical messengers Preganglionic-Ach, Postganglionic-Ach Characteristics two sets of nerves. First is the long, second is the short.
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Connections Preganglionic nerve releases Ach to nicotinic receptor sites located on skeletal muscles. Carriers Ganglions,Receptors Nicotinic, Chemicalsngers Ach, Characteristics One long preganglionic nerve commuincates with muscle.
INOTROPE drug that affects cardiac contractility
CHROMOTROPE drug that affects cardiac rate
DROMOTROPE drug that affects speed of AV conduction
STIMULATE THE SNS SYMPATHOMIMETICS EPINEPHRINE EFFECTS SNS STIMULATION ALPHA, BETA iNDICATIONS BRONCHOCONSTRICTION, ALLERGIC REACTION, CARDIAC DEPRESSION, VASODILATION-DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE,LOCAL HEMASTATIS, SIDE EFFECTS SNS STIMULATION, ANXIETY, ANGINA, MI, PERIPHERAL ISCHEMIA OR NECROSIS.
CONTRAINDICATIONS HYPERTENSION, PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE, OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA, PREEXISTING CARDIAC, CNS DISEASE. IV PUMP ACCURATE TITRATION, EKG MONITOR, VITALS 3-5 MINS.
STIMULATE THE SNS SYMPATHOMIMETICS NOREPINEPHRINE Levophed SNS Stimulation without B2 effects,Indications Acute hypotension, gives you a BP, Side Effects SNS Stimulation, extravastion causes tissue necrosis. Use a big vein. Contraindications hypotension, peripheral vascular disease, open-angle glaucoma
preexisting cardiac or CNS disease. Given IV pump for accurate titration. EKG, vitals 3-5 minutes
VASOACTIVE PRESSOR DOBUTAMINE Primarily Beta 1 stimulation. Indications cardiac decompensation, acute hypotension.Side effects SNS stimulation, ventricular ectopy,(extra beats) increase cardiac output, angina. Contraindications hpyertension,peripheral vascular disease.
preexisting cardiac, CNS disease. Given IV accurate titration. EKG, vitals 3-5 minutes.
Adrenergic, Receptors Preganglionic-Nicotinic, Postganglionic-Alpha,Beta Chemical Messengers Preganglionic-Ach,Postganglionic Norephinephrine & Epinephrine Characteristics One short preganglion nerve. Blood stream is a carrier.
DRUGS THAT BLOCK THE PSNS PARASYMPATHOLYTICS ATROPINE SULFATE ANTICHOLINERGICS SIDE EFFECTS BLOCKS THE ACh EFFECTS ON THE MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS TO DECREASE PSNS. INDICATIONS ASTHAMATIC BRONCHOSPASM -BRONCHODILATE. PREANESTHIA-DRY SECRETIONS.EYE EXAM TO DILATE PUPILS.ACUTE BRADYCARDIA, HEART BLOCK INCREASE HEART RATE. PEPTIC ULCER
DISEASE-DECREASE ACID SECRETIONS.ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING. SIDE EFFECTS MIDRIASIS,PUPILS DILATE, BRONCHODILATION WITH MUCUS PLUGS, DRY MOUTH, BLURRED VISION,URINARY RETENTION, TACHYCARDIA, CONSTIPATION.CONTRAINDICATIONS GLAUCOMA, ASTHMA,TACHYCARDIA
ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE, HYPOMOTILITY OF GUT,MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. ROUTE Po, IM, SQ,IV INHALED, TOPICAL. MONITOR VS,SUCK HARD CANDY,MONITOR URINE OUTPUT,SUNGLASSES,SAFETY PRECAUTIONS.
Created by: Dhartman5
 

 



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