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Pharmacology Unit1&2

Pharm notes

Drug? chemical that affects living process
Pharmacology? study of drugs and their interactions with living systems
Clinical Pharmacology? study of drugs in humans
Therapeutics? diagnose, prevent, or treat a disease/pregnancy
Properties of ideal drugs (main 3) Safety, Selectivity, Effectiveness
Safety? Produce no harmful effects
Selectivity? elicits ONLY the responses for which it is given
Effectiveness? elicits the response for which it is given
Six Rights of drug admin Right; patient, route, dose, time, drug and documentation
Nursing Process with drugs Assess: baseline data, identify high-risk patients. Diagnoses: appropriateness of the regimen. Planning; establish priorities. Implementation: drug admin, education. Evaluation: compliance, satisfaction, drug reactions.
Chemical Name? nomenclature of chemistry
Generic Name? nonproprietary name given by United States Adopted Names Council
Trade Name? proprietary/brand names by the FDA
Sources of Drugs (4) Plants, Animals/Humans, Minerals, Chemical.
Drug Classification? (2) Clinical Indication: Bronchodilator/antifungal drugs Body System: affecting the central nervous system
Properties of drugs(3) drugs modify existing functions(replacing, interrupting, potentiating). Potential to modify more than one function. Combine to receptors.
Pharmaceutical? the drug must be in solution to prepare for absorption
Dissolution? the process by which a drug goes into solution and becomes available for absorption
Pharmacokinetic? Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
Ways the drug crosses the membrane? Passage through channels or pores: very few use. Transport Systems: require energy, move drugs from one side to the other. Direct Penetration: LIPID SOLUBLE only, most drugs use.
Absorption? movement of a drug from site of admin to the blood
Parental? Outside the GI
Enteral? Through the GI
Types of Routes for absorption? IM & SUBQ: capillary walls. IV: no barriers. PO: GI epithelial cells and capillary walls.
Distribution? movement of drugs throughout the body
The 3 phases of distribution? 1.the blood must carry the drug to tissues/organs(BBB/albumin as a barrier) 2.the drug must leave the blood 3.the free bound drug must enter site of action
Albumin? affects the amount of free bound drugs that's in the blood to work on the site of action
Metabolism? alteration of drug structure in the liver using p450 enzymes
Metabolism Consequences? Accelerated renal drug excretion: converts drugs to less lipid soluble compounds
Influences on metabolism? age, liver enzymes, nutritional status, drug competition
Excretion? removal of drugs from the body
Excretion process? 1.Filtration: drugs forced through capillary walls 2.Reabsorption: drugs move through lumen of tubule back into blood 3.Secretion:pumps drugs from blood to urine
Other routes for excretion? breast milk, bile, lungs, sweat, saliva
Plasma Drug Levels? scale that is used for drug therapy to monitor therapeutic and toxic response
Minimum Effective Concentration? the minimal dosage level to indict a response
Therapeutic Range? between the MEC and toxic level. the wider the better
Toxic Concentration? drugs levels are too high
Single Dose Time Course? line scale that rise when drug levels occur and lower as metabolism and excretion occur.
Drug half-life? time required for the amount of drug in the body to decrease by 50%
Repeated Dose Course? multiple dosing lead to drug accumulation. using the drug half life to find a plateau.
Loading Dose? dose given to quickly achieve plateau followed by maintenance dose
Pharmacodynamics? What drugs do in the body and how
Dose-Response Relationship? the relationship between the size of an administered dose and the intensity of the response, used for drug therapy
Maximal Efficacy? largest effect the drug can produce
Potency? dosage needed to produce effects
Relative Potency? amount of drug we must give to elicit an effect. same as MEC
Drug-Receptor Interactions? reversible response to either mimic or block receptors actions
Receptor? any functional macromolecule in a cell to which a drug binds to,to produce an effect
Theories of Drug-Receptor interaction?(2) 1.Simple occupancy: the intensity of the response to a drug is equal to the number of receptors used 2.Modified occupancy: the strength used a drug and receptor to attach is equal to the ability of a drug to activate a receptor
Agonists? mimic body's action
Antagonists? block the body's action
Partial Agonists? lower response then agonists but still mimics
ED50 the recommended dose to cause therapeutic response for 50% of the population
LD50 the lethal dose tested that is too lethal on 50% of the tested animals
Therapeutic Index? measure the drugs safety using a ratio. the larger the number the safer the drug
Drug-Drug Interaction? 2 or more drugs are taken
The outcomes of Drug-Drug interaction?(3) 1.intensification/Potentiative: one drug may intensify the effects of the other 2.Reduction of effect: inhibits the effects of other drugs 3.Unique response: new response not seen by individual drug
Mechanisms of Drug-Drug Interaction? 1.Direct: both drugs inactive 2.Pharmacokinetic: altered phases 3.Pharmacodydamics: one drug alters the effects of the other 4.Cobined Toxicity
Drug-Food Interaction? (3) food decrease rate of absorption, grapefruit juice inhibits a drug from metabolizing, or have a direct effect on drug actions
Adverse Drug Reactions? unintended effect that occurs at normal drug dose
Side Effect? unavoidable secondary drug effect produced at therapeutic doses
Toxicity? adverse drug reaction by excessive dosing
Allergic Reaction? Immune response
Iatrogenic Disease? disease produced by drugs
Physical Dependence? body adapts to prolong drug exposure
Carcinogenic Effect? meds cause cancer
Teratogenic Effect? drug induced birth effect
Individual Variation? Body weight, composition, age, gender, pathophysiology,
Tolerance? Type of Individual Variation. decreased responsiveness of a drug due to repeated doses
Pharmacodynamics Tolerance? decrease responsiveness due to long term admin of drugs, causing a high MEC
Metabolic Tolerance? decreased responsiveness due to accelerated drug metabolism, making the drug to metabolize faster.
Tachyphylaxis? reduction in drug responsiveness by short time repeated dosing
Placebo Effect? control testing new meds by using psychological factors
Idiosyncratic Effects? unique drug response based on genetic heritage
Pharmacokinetics(peds)? each phase is altered due to immature organs, greater bodily fluid and body fat
Absorption(peds)? P.O drugs are delayed due to low Ph levels, IM is uncertain due to blood flow, IV must be diluted and given intraosseous, Topical is absorbed greater
Distribution(peds)? The percent body fat, water content, blood volume and blood flow is inconsistent
Metabolism(peds)? Hepatic enzymes are low
Excretion(peds)? filtration is common mechanism and have a 50% longer half life then adults.
Pharmacodynamics(peds) produce the same effects as adults but the response differs.
Preferred Peds med admin techniques? IM on vastus lateralis or rectus femoris of the thigh. no more than 1 ml.
4 families of receptors 1.Cell membrane: agonist span over membrane . 2.Gated Ion: span membrane to regulate ions. 3.G-Protien: use agonist to activate G-Protein. 4.Transcription: regulate protein synthesis, may take hours
Created by: aneshia



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