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psychology

chapters 5-8

QuestionAnswer
sensation the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment,
perception the process by which our brain organizes and interprets sensory information, transforming it into meaningful objects and events
transduction changing one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret
absolute threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
subliminal below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness
difference threshold the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (or jnd)
sensory adaption reduction sensitivity in response to constant stimulation
perception set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
sight=vision sounds=audition waves-(light for vision and sound for audition)
smell=olfaction taste=gustation particles-(sensing chemicals for olfaction and gustation)
touch=touch pressure, warmth, cold on the skin
body position and movement changes in position, interacting with vision movements of fluids in the inner ear
feature detector nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as edges, lines, and angles (able to recognize faces)
prosopagnosia failure to recognize faces; they know they are looking at a face, but cannot tell who the face is even if it's their own or that of a friend or relative (can't recognize faces)
synesthesia a mixing of sensory information, (taste and smell closely related) anytime you hear something you can see a color
parallel processing the processing of many aspects of a problem or scene at the same time; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
kinesthesia the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
audition the sense or act of hearing
vestibular sense the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance; even if we can't see our body, we know what position we are still in
Learning the process of acquiring, through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
classical conditioning a type of learning in which we learn to like two or more stimuli and anticipate events
acquisition a classical conditioning the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus (NS) begins triggering the conditioned stimulus (US) so that the neutral stimulus (NS=CS) begins the conditioned response (CR). In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response);
NS->No response Before conditioning Neutral stimulus (lightning) ->No Response + US (thunder) ->UR=cry
US->UR=? before conditioning Unconditioned stimulus->Unconditioned Response
NS + US->UR=? during conditioning NS (lightning) + US (thunder)->UR=crying
NS->CS->CR=? after conditioning NS + CS (lightning)->CR=cry
NS=Neutral Stimulus a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
US=Unconditioned Stimulus a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
UR=Unconditioned Response an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an US (unconditioned stimulus)
CS=Conditioned Stimulus an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
CR=Conditioned Response a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
Generalization the tendency, after conditioning, to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus (CS); response to anything similar
Discrimination the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and other irrelevant stimuli; learning to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli
Extinction the weakening of a conditioned response (CR) when an unconditioned stimulus (CS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); hold back stimuli when using the conditioned stimuli
Spontaneous Recovery the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response (CR); the reappearance of the conditioned response
Operant Conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher
The major researcher of the operant chamber or "Skinner box" B. F. Skinner
Reinforcement any event that strengths the behavior It follows
Punishment an event that decreases/weakens the behavior it follows
Schedules of Reinforcement a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
the -> )Variable Ratio> <- the amount same-> <-of time number of tries stay the same is a fixed number of tries changes is a variable
Fixed-Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinrforcement schedule that reinforces response only after a specific number of responses
Variable-Ratio Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed-Interval Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Variable-Interval Schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Positive Reinforcement increases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. a positive reinforce is anything that, when presented after a response, strengths the response
Negative Reinforcement increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. a negative reinforce is anything that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (NOTE: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT PUNISHMENT)
Shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide actions closer and closer toward a desired behavior
Cognitive Learning the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language
The major researcher of cognitive learning is Albert Banura-he did the Bobo doll experiment
Modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Memories the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
Iconic Memory visual sensory memory
Echoic Memory auditory sensory memory
Sensory Memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten. ( won't last very long and it can't hold very much)
Working Memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that stresses conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Long-term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experience
Explicit Memory memory of facts and personal events you can consciously retrieve. (also called declarative memory); episodes of that we an tell people about
Implicit Memory retaining learned skills, or classically conditioned associations, without conscious awareness (also called nondeclarative memory); can't show but already know and some comes from people or movies.
Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of everyday information, such as space, time, frequency, and well-learned word meaning
Effortful Processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Spacing Effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice (remember a little at a time)
Testing Effect enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information(have to think about it to be able to retrieve it)
Serial-Position Effect the tendency to recall best the last and first items of a list (switch up how you study)
Flashbulb Memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event (something that big happens)
Recall memory demonstrated by retrieving information learned earlier, as on a multiple-choice test; memory demonstrated by retrieving information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Recognition memory demonstrated by identifying items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
Retrieval Cue any stimulus (event, feeling, place, and so one) linked to a specific memory
Deja vu that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience; it has a lag time
Proactive Interference the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information; old information messes with new information
Retroactive Interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of new information; new information messes with old information
Repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety
Cognition all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Thinking every time you use information and mentally act on it by forming ideas, reasoning, solving problems, drawing conclusions, expressing thoughts, or comprehending the thoughts of others; mental-form a vision of something
Mental Image mental representation of a previously stored experience; includes all five senses-visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, motor, tactile imagery
Concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people
Language our spoken, written, or signed words ad the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Algorithms a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees you will solve a particular problem (ex: step-by-step description for evacuating a building during a fire)
Heuristics simple thinking strategies that often allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms (such as running for an exit when you smell smoke)
Insight a sudden realization of the solution to a problem ( an Aha! reaction)
Availability Heuristic estimating the likelihood of an event based on its availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we assume such events are common (not based on how likely they are to actually occur)
Fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; fixation-mental sets or functional fixesnessive
Confirmation Bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort evidence that contradicts them
Overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments; have to see facts
Framing the way an issue is posed; framing can significantly affect decisions and judgments; can mean the same thing like Obama-care and affordable care
Belief Perseverance clinging to beliefs and ignoring evidence that proves they are wrong; people are actually watching you.
Intelligence mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Intellectual Disability a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the demands of life (Formerly referred to as mental retardation)
Savant Syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
What determines a good test? Standardization
Standardization defining scores by comparing them with the performance of a pretested standardization group ( must have norms and instructions must be uniform)
Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Stereotype Threat a self-confirming concern that we will be judged based on a negative stereotype
Created by: 1277227476