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Adrenergics

Pharmacology OHSU NRS 230

QuestionAnswer
What type of drug is epinephrine and for what use? Parenteral adrenergic for cardiovascular use
What type of drug is norepinephrine and for what use? Parenteral adrenergic for cardiovascular use
What type of drug is dopamine and for what use? Parenteral adrenergic for cardiovascular use
Which receptors does epinephrine bind to and activate? Alpha, beta1, and beta2 adrenergic receptors
What type of drug is pseudoephedrine and for what use? Adrenergic decongestant
What type of drug is albuterol and for what use? Adrenergic bronchodilator, specifically a beta2-adrenergic agonist
What type of drug is salmeterol and for what use? Adrenergic bronchodilator, specifically a beta2-adrenergic agonist
Would salmeterol be a good choice to treat acute asthma symptoms? Why or why not? No. It has a slower onset of action (10-25 minutes). A rapid-acting inhaled beta-adrenergic bronchodilator should be used for relief of acute asthma attacks, such as albuterol.
What are two adrenergics found in natural products? Ephedra (also known as ma huang) and bitter orange
Which natural product for weight loss with adrenergic action was banned by the FDA, but is widely available illegally? Ephedra
Adrenergics are drugs that act like ______________ in that they bind to adrenergic receptors and cause physiological actions. Catecholemines
What are two other names for adrenergics? Sympathomimetics or adrenergic agonists
Why shouldn't you use pseudoephedrine if you have hypertension? It constricts blood vessels (it is a sympathomimetic).
Why is albuterol a better choice for an asthma attack than epinephrine, even though epinephrine is also a bronchodilator? Albuterol is specifically a beta2 agonist whereas epinephrine stimulates alpha, beta1, and beta2 receptors so it would have more side effects, such as on the heart.
Would you see the suffix -mimetic on an agonist or an antagonist? Agonist
Would you see the suffix -blocker on an agonist or an antagonist? Antagonist
Would you see the suffix -lytic on an agonist or an antagonist? Antagonist
Name two types of illegal drugs that are classified as adrenergics. Amphetamines and cocaine
What is the mechanism of action of adrenergics? They bind to adrenergic receptors (alpha, beta-1, and beta-2) and stimulate them.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on heart rate (the chronotropic effect)? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2 affect? Positive chronotropic affect. Beta-1.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on myocardial contractility (the inotropic effect)? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2 effect? Positive inotropic affect. Beta-1.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on heart rate? Tachycardia (which increases O2 demand--may get angina)
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on myocardial contractility? Palpitations (heart pounding in chest)
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on conduction velocity in the heart (dromotropic effect)? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2 effect? Positive dromotropic effect. Beta-1.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on conduction velocity in the heart? Increased risk of cardiac dysrhythmias.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on cardiac output? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2 effect? Increased cardiac output. Beta-1.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on the arterioles in skin and mucous membranes? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2 effect? Constriction of arterioles. Alpha.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on the arterioles in skin and mucous membranes? Causes paleness
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on peripheral vascular resistance? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2 effect? Increased PVR. Alpha.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on peripheral vascular resistance? Increased blood pressure
How does hypertension cause angina? Raised BP increases afterload. If heart is lacking O2 you get angina in someone with coronary atherosclerosis. Someone with a pre-existing heart condition should be careful with cold meds, weight loss meds, etc.
What two factors do you multiply to get blood pressure? Cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on the secretion of renin? Renin secretion is increased
How does the secretion of renin contribute to increased blood pressure? Leads to increased angiotensin I and II, increased aldosterone and fluid. Angiotensin II causes increased vasoconstriction.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on secretions in the G.I. tract? Decreased G.I. secretions
What is a clinical effect of adrenergics on secretions in the mouth? Dry mouth. (Dentures might not fit or could rub.)
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on sphincters in the G.I. tract? Constriction
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on the motility of the G.I. tract? Decreased motility
What is a possible clinical effect of adrenergics due to the decreased motility of the G.I. tract? Nausea and vomiting
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on blood glucose? Increased blood glucose
What is the effect of SNS simulation on the bronchioles? Alpha, beta-1, or beta-2? Bronchodilation. Beta-2.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on the bronchioles? Open airways. Easier to breathe.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on blood glucose? Hyperglycemia, poor glucose control in diabetics
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on the muscle of the urinary bladder (detrusser)? It relaxes
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on the urinary sphincter? It constricts
What is the clinical effect of urinary bladder muscle relaxation and urinary sphincter construction from adrenergics? Urinary hesitancy or retention
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on the size of pupils? Does this accommodate for near or far vision? Dilation (mydriasis). Far vision.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on vision? Blurred vision for close reading.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on fat (storage or breakdown)? Breakdown (lipolysis).
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on body fat? Weight loss, elevated FFA in blood, can increase body temperature.
What is the effect of SNS stimulation on potassium levels? It causes potassium to move into cells.
What is the clinical effect of adrenergics on potassium levels? Transient hypokalemia (low plasma potassium). Hypokalemia causes skeletal muscle weakness and cardiac dysrhythmias.
What are the adrenergic effects in the brain? Increased alertness, possibly insomnia. Can cause restlessness, irritability, or anxiety.
Created by: k_duff