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Chapter 9 & 10

Waves & Sound Terminology

TermDefinition
Wave A repeating disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space.
Medium A material through which a wave travels.
Longitudinal (Compression) Wave A wave where its matter vibrates back and forth in the same direction as the wave.
Wavelength The distance between waves. Abbreviation: lambda SI Unit: meter
Amplitude The amount of energy carried by a wave.
Frequency The number of waves passing by every second Measured in m/s or Hz
Wavelength Equation Wavelength=Velocity/Frequency
Seismic Waves The waves produced by earthquakes.
Compression Waves (P Waves) Seismic waves that travel through the Earth.
Shear Waves (S Waves) Seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface.
Richter Scale Scale used to measure the amplitude of seismic waves.
Sonic boom Sound produced when an object travels faster than the speed of sound.
Interference A combination of two or more waves passing through each other.
Destructive Interference Occurs when when crests pass through troughs and cancel each other out.
Constructive Interference Occurs when two troughs, crests, rarefaction, or compression pass through each other.
Standing Wave A wave pattern formed when waves continually interfere with each other.
Resonance Vibrations that build when objects are forced to vibrate at their natural frequencies.
Infrasound Sounds less than 20 Hz.
Ultrasound Sounds greater than 20,000 Hz.
Pitch Is the human perception of sound based on its frequency, highness, and/or lowness.
Loudness The human perception of sound intensity.
Decibel: dB The units used to measure sound loudness. Lowest sound still audible to humans: 0 dB Permanent hearing loss begins at: 120 dB
Sonar Sound Navigation and Ranging
Doppler Effect States that a change in frequency will occur due to the motion of the sound source.
Music A patterned formed by using specific pitches and sound quality.
Noise Sounds with no set pattern or pitch.
Overtones Multiples of the fundamental frequency.
Reverberation: The echos that are heard from the reflections of sound off different surfaces.
An-echoic Chamber A room where no echos will be heard.
Gamma Wave Shortest electromagnetic wave.
Radio Wave Longest electromagnetic wave.
Created by: MadyZ