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rrt review

pt evaluation

what are four life functions? ventilation, oxygenation,circulation,perfusion
what is the most common problem when dealing with life function? oxygenation
how do you find smoking history? pack years= # of packs per day X # of years smoked
what is the normal urine output? 40 ML / hr or about 1 Liter/ day
what is sensible water loss? urine, vomiting
what is insensible water loss? lungs and skin
if intake exceeds output this can cause what? Weight gain, electrolyte imbalance , increased hemodynamic pressures, and decrease lung compliance
what can a decrease is cvp (<2 mm hg) indicate ? hypovolemia
what can a increase in cvp (>6 mm hg) indicate? hypervolemia
what is peripheral edema? presence of excessive fluid in the tissue primarily in the ankles and arms
what causes peripheral edema? CHF and Renal failure
what is ascities and what causes it? accumulation of fluid in the abdomen generally caused by liver failure
what causes venous distention? CHF, and obstructive lung disease
What can cause diaphoresis? heart failure,fever,anxiety, TB
what are the normal muscles of ventilation? diaphragm,external intercostals,
What are accessory muscles of ventilation? intercostal, scalene,sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis , abdominal mucles,such as oblique
what is hypertophy and what disease dose this occur in? increase in muscles size . which you would see in your COPD pts
signs of respiratory distress retraction, accessory muscle use, nasal flaring grunting
normal heart rate 60-100
what is tachycardia and what dose it indicate? >100 indicates hyoxemia, anxiety, stress
what is bradycardia and what dose it indicate? <60 indicates heart failure, shock code emergency
what is paradoxical pulse/ pulsus paradoxus and what can it indicate? pulse/ blood pressure vairies with respiration. may indicate severe air trapping such as in status asthmaticus or cardiac tamponade
what causes the trachea to be deviated toward the pathology? pulmonary atelectasis, pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonectomy,or diaphragmatic paralysis
what cause the trachea to be deviated away from the pathology? massive pleural effusion, tension pneumothorax, neck or thyroid tumors, or large mediastinal mass
what is the normal blood pressure? 120/80
what can cause hypertension? cardiac stress such as hypoxemia
what can cause hypotenion? poor perfusion such as in hypovolemia and CHF