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cervical & thoracic


define EMA External Acoustic Meatus
What does the mastoid process (tip) correspond with? level of C1
What does the angle of the jaw or gonion correspond with? C3
What does the thyroid cartage or adams apple correspond with? C5 (thyroid cartilage between C4-C6)
What does the vertebral prominens C7 correspond with? Body of T1
What does the jugular notch correspond with? T2 AND T3
What does the sternal angle correspond with? T4 and T5
How can you locate T7? 3-4 inches inferior to jugular notch
What corresponds to the xiphoid process? T9-T10
What corresponds with the lower costal margin? L2-L3
What corresponds with the iliac crest? L4-L5
What corresponds to ASIS? S1-S2
Where is the mentomeatal (MML) positioning line? Runs from the mentum to the EAM
Where is Acanthiomeatal (AML) positioning line? Runs from the acanthion to the EAM
What are the two defining characteristics of C1-C7? 1.3 foramina each 2.more dominate articular pillars
How is the spinous process on C2-C6 different from the rest of the C-spine? bifid tips
What is C7 defined as? vertebral prominens (has 1 long spinous process)
Does C1/Atlas have a body? no
What does C1/Atlas have instead of a spinous process? posterior tubercle
What is another term for the lateral masses on C1/Atlas? articular pillars
What is the most defining feature of C2/axis? the dens
What does the T-spine contain that C-spine and L-spine do not have? Costal facets
What are the 4 routine projections of the C-spine? AP "Open Mouth",AP Axial, Bilateral axial obliques, Lateral
What are the 2 special projections of the C-spine? Flexion/Extension, Fuchs & Judd
What is the KVp range and focal spot size for C-spine? 70-80 KVP small focal spot size
What size IR should be used for an AP "Open Mouth" 8x10
When would you perform a Fuchs or Judd projection? If dens is not demonstrated on a AP "Open Mouth"
What anatomy will be demonstrated on AP "Open Mouth" projection? odontoid process (dens), lateral masses of C1,and Zygapophyseal joints of C1 &C2
What projection is AP "Open Mouth"? Anteroposterior
What is the projection for AP axial position? Anteroposterior axial
Where is the CR for an AP axial projection? at the level of C4 & MSP
How much would you angle and which way and for an AP axial projection? supine and erect supine-15* cephalad erect- 20* cephalad
What are the patient instructions for AP axial projection? Do not breath, move, or swallow
Why do you angle on an AP axial projection? To better visualize the intervertebral disks
What anatomy should be demonstrated on a AP axial projection? Vertebral bodies C3-T2 and intervertebral disk spaces C3-T2
What SID is used on an oblique C-spine? 40'' or 72'' 72'' is more common
On a c-spine what is the angle that pedicles lie from the MCP? 45* angle
What is the projection for left and right posterior axial oblique position? Anteroposterior axial oblique
What is the projection for a C-spine right and left anterior axial oblique position (RAO/LAO)? Posteroanterior axial oblique projection
What anatomy is clearly demonstrated on a C-spine RAO/LAO? intervertebral foramina and pedicles closet to IR
What anatomy is clearing demonstrated on a C-spine RPO/LPO? intervertebral foramina and pedicles farthest from the IR
What is the SID for a lateral C-spine? 72''
Where is the CR for a lateral C-spine? perpendicular to C4 and MCP
What should be demonstrated on a lateral C-spine? pre-vertebral fat strip, vertebral bodies C1-C7,superimposed RT & LT,zygapophyseal joints,posterior arch of C1 in profile, superimposed articular pillars
What x-ray must you take before doing flexion extension c-spine positions? lateral to rule out cervical fracture
Is the patient supine or prone for a Fuchs position? supine
Is the patient supine or prone for a Judd position? prone
Where is the CR for a Fuchs position? parallel to MML, directed to inferior tip of manible
Where is the CR for a Judd position? parallel to MML,enter the occipital bone about 1'' inferoposterior to mastoid tips & angle of mandible.
For a Fuchs & Judd projection where is the dens projected? Within the foramen magnum
What is the name for the erect C-spine swimmers position? Twining method
What is the name for the recumbent C-spine swimmers position? Pawlow method
What is the the angle on C-spine swimmers if the shoulder is not depressed? 3*-5* caudad
What anatomy is visualized on a C-spine swimmers position? vertebral bodies C5-T4,elevated humerus,superimposed vertebrae, right & left zygapophyseal joints superimposed.
What technique can be used for a cross table lateral projection for the C-spine? Air-Gap technique
What are the routine projections for T-spine? AP and Lateral
What are the special projections for the T-spine? Swimmers and Oblique
What is the KVp range for T-spine and the focal spot size? 80-90 KVp and small focal spot
What is the SID and IR size for T-spine? 40'' and 14X17
What needs to be used on T-spines to help with scatter? lead blocker
With the anode heel affect where is the intensity of radiation the greatest? cathode
Where is the CR for a AP position T-spine? T7 & MSP
What type of filter would be useful in obtaining uniform brightness and density on a AP T-spine? Wedge compensating filter.
What vertebral bodies need to be demonstrated on an AP T-spine? C7-L1
What type of breathing technique is used for a lateral T-spine? orthostatic
What type of technique needs to be set for a orthostatic breathing technique for the lateral T-spine? low mA and high time (3 or 4 sec.)
Where is the CR for a lateral position T-spine? perpendicular to T7 & posterior half of thorax
What vertebral bodies should be demonstrated on a lateral T-spine? T2-L1
For a oblique T-spine how much do you rotate the patient if they start in a lateral position? 20* (to create 70*)
What does a LAO/RAO T-spine demonstrate? Zygapophyseal joints closest to the IR
What does a LPO/RPO T-spine demonstrate? Zygapophyseal joints farther from IR
Where do center for T-spine obliques? T7
What are the routine views for a scoliosis series? AP/PA and lateral
Why is PA recommended for a scoliosis series? to reduce dose to radiosensitive areas such as beast and thyroid
Is a scoliosis series done erect or supine? erect
what is the SID for scoliosis series? 40''-60''
What is S.A.M. an acronym for? Shield, Align, Mark
Created by: lchadderton