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Contrast Media Worksheet

What is the purpose of contrast agents used in diagnostic imaging? Demonstrates absorption and density differences in organs and vessels
Positive contrast agents increase/decrease density differences. increase
What are two examples of positive contrast agents and an exam where they are utilized? barium sulfite (barium swallow)non iodinated (myelogram)
What are two types of negative contrast agents and an exam that uses negative agents? air, carbon dioxidedouble contrst barium enema
Why do we not give a patient barium sulfate if there is a suspected perforation or obstruction? It may leak into the peritoneal cavity causing infection (peritonitis) or if the patient has an obstruction it may cause more of an obstruction.
what type of water soluble contrast is used in cases of perforation of the bowel? Oral/rectal
What is the k edge for barium? iodine? 37; 33
By know what the k edge of the contrast is what information do we gain? we can determine what kVp to use barium - 37 - 105 kVp iodine - 33 - 90-95 kVp
Define water soluble substance that can easily dissolve in water
w/w (weight in weight) amount of solid substance dissolved in known amount of liquid
w/v (weight in volume) amount of solid substance dissolved in measured quantity of liquid
Non-ionic, LOCA low osmolar contrast agent; safer; contains less particles and will not bind within body causing less chances for adverse effects
Concentration of ions in a dissolved sutstance per unit of solvent. osmolarity
number of cases of adverse occurences morbidity
death rate mortality
Viscosity thickness/resistance to flow
What is the purpose of single contrast studies and double contrast studies? single - for filling to identify obstructiondouble - to coat the mucosal lining to look for polyps and ulcers
What are two medications given for pre medication for allergy to water soluble iodinated contrast? prednisone and benadryl
What is the advantage of non-ioni, LOCA water soluble contrast media? fewer iodine particles and no free electrons. It will not bind within body, decreases adverse occurence; less toxic and low morbidity
Which contrast would have less toxicity?ionic, low osmolarity, non-ionic low osmolarity or nonionic high osmolarity non-ionic low osmolarity
What is the maximum level for creatine and BUN before it is contraindicated? Creatine .6-1.5 (greater than 2.0)BUN 8-25 mg (greater than 45)
Name some risk factors for contrast media injection. renal failure (due to creatine and BUN), allergic reaction, iodine sensitivity
cardiovascular changes manifested in response to a contrast medium injection and results in lightheadedness, anxiety, diaphoresis, hypotension and bradycartioa. Vasovagal
If a patient was having a vasovagal reaction what can be done? give atropine to help
What are four mild adverse occurences? metallic taste, cough, vomitting, flushed, urdicaria
what are four severe adverse occurences? laryngeal edema, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, anaphylactic shock
Name equipment that should be present in case of a reaction to contrast. O2, suction, crash cart
which drug inhibits vasovagal reactions? atropine
This drug removes excess fluid from body. lasix
Mimics sympathetic system and used in severe contrast reactions. epinephrine
Muscular relaxant and sedative. valium
Phenergan reduces nausea
Benadryl allergic reaction to contrast
If a water soluble contrast was unsafe for myelography what would it have to state? not for intrathecal injection
What are some pharmaceutical routes of administration of medications? oral, sublingual, rectal, inhalation, parenteral
what are 7 parenteral routes of administration? intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intravenous, intrathecal, subarachnoid
Give an example of a positive contrast agent. barium sulfate
Give an example of a negative contrast agent. air
Extravasation leaking into tissues
Created by: sr4095