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PT Definitions

Pharmacy Technician Definitions

abbreviated new drug application (aNDA) the process by which applicants must scientifically demonstrate to the FDA that their generic product is bioequivalent to or performs in the same way as the innovator drug
accreditation the stamp of approval of the quality of services of a hospital by the Joint Commission
active ingredient the biochemically active component of the drug that exerts a desired therapeutic effect
addiction compulsive and uncontrollable use of controlled substances, especially narcotics
admitting order a medicaition order written by a physician on admission of a patient to the hospital; may or may not include a medication order
adverse drug reaction (ADR) a negative consequence to a patient from taking a particular drug
aerosol a pressurized container with propellant used to administer a drug through oral inhalation into the lungs
alchemy the European practice during the Middle Ages that conbined elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, and medicine with astrology, mysticism, and spiritualism such as turning ordinary metals into silver and gold
allergy a hypersensitivity to a specific substance, manifested in a physiological disorder
alligation the compounding of two or more products to obtain a desired concentration
ampule a single-dose-only drug container; it contains no preservative
ante area the area of the IV room used for hand washing and donning protective garments, among other high-particulate-generating activities
antibiotic a chemical substance that is used in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases and has the ability to either kill or inhibit the growth of certain harmful microorganisms
antibody the part of the immune system that neutralizes antigens or foreign substances in the body
anticipatory compounding preparing excess product(besides an individual compound prescription) in reasonable quantities; these preparations must be labeled with lot numbers
antineoplastic drug a cancer-fighting drug
appearance the overall outward look of an employee on the job, including dress and grooming
aromatic water a solution of water containing oils or other substances that have a pungent, and usually pleasing, smell and are easily released into the air
asepsis the absence of disease-causing microorganisms
aseptic technique the manipulation of sterile products and devices in such a way as to avoid disease-causing organisms
assumption error an error that occurs when an essential piece of information cannot be verified and is guessed or presumed
attitude the emotional stance or disposition that a worker adopts toward his or her job duties, customers, employer, and coworkers
autoclave a device that generates heat and pressure to sterilize
automated compounding device (ACD) a programmable, automated device to make complex IV preparations such as TPNs
auxiliary label a supplementary label added to a medication container at the discretion of the pharmacist that provides additional directions
average wholesale price (AWP) the average price that wholesalers charge the pharmacy for a drug
bacterium a small, single-celled microorganism that can exist in three main forms, depending on type; spherical (i.e.,cocci),rod-shaped (i.e., bacilli), and spiral (i.e., spirochetes)
beyond-use dating the documentation of the date after which a compounded preparation expires and should no longer be used
bioequivalent a generic drug that delivers approximately the same amount of active ingredient into a healthy volunteer's bloodstream in the same amount of time as the innovator or brand name drug
biotechnology the field of study that combines the sciences of biology, chemistry, and immunology to produce synthetic, unique drugs with specific therapeutic effects
black box warning a warning statement required by the FDA indicating a serious or even life-threatening adverse reaction from a drug; the warning statement is on the product package insert (PPI) for the pharmacy staff and in the MedGuide for consumers
blending the act of combining two substances
body surface area (BSA) a measurement related to a patient's weight and height, expressed in meters squared, and used to calculate patient-specific dosages of medications
brand name medically necessary a designation on the prescription by the physician indicating that a generic substitution by the pharmacist is not allowed; commonly seen on prescriptions for thyroid medication; often abbreviated as "brand necessary"
brand name the name under which the manufacturer markets a drug; also known as the trade name
buccal route of administration oral administration in which a drug is placed between the gum and the inner lining of the cheek; also called transmucosal route of administration
buffer area the area of the IV room used for the storage of components and supplies (such as IV bags and administration sets) that are used for compounding CSPs; also area for hand hygiene and donning protective gloves
cannula the barrel of a syringe or bore area inside the syringe that correlates with the volume of solution
caplet a hybrid solid dosage formulation sharing characteristics of both a tablet and a capsule
capsule the dosage form containing powder, liquid, or granules in a gelatin covering
capture error an error that occurs when focus on a task is diverted elsewhere and therefore the error goes undetected
cart fill list a printout of all unit dose profiles for all patients
catheter a device inserted into a vein for direct access to the blood vascular system
Celsius temperature scale the temperature scale that uses zero degrees (i.e., 0 C) as the temperature at which water freezes at sea level and 100 C as the temperature at which it boils
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) a governmental agency that provides guidelines and recommendations on health care, including infection control
central venous catheter (CVC) a catheter placed into a large vein deep into the body; also called a central line
certificate of medical necessity form to be completed and signed by the prescriber for insurance payment for diabetic supplies
certification the process by which a professional organization grants recognition to an individual who has bet certain predetermined qualifications
Certified Pharmacy Technician (CPhT) a pharmacy technician who has passed the PTCE or ExCPT examination
chain pharmacy a community pharmacy that consists of several similar pharmacies in the region (or nation) that are corporately owned
chemo venting pin a device used to equalize pressure in the proparation of hazardous drugs
chewable tablet a solid oral dosage form meant to be chewed that is readily absorbed; commonly prescribed for school-age children
child-resistant container a medication container with a special lid that cannot be opened by 80% of children but can be opened by 90% of adults; a container designed to prevent child access in order to reduce the number of accidental poisonings
civil law the areas of the law that concern U.S. citizens and the crimes they commit against one another
Class III prescription balance a two-pan balance used to weigh material (120 g or less) with a sensitivity rating of =/-6 mg; also known as a Class A balance
clean room an area that includes the buffer and staging areas and the sterile, direct compounding area (DCA) of the IV compounding lab
closed system transfer device (CSTD) a needleless delivery system by which medications are aseptically activated and added to an IV minibag at patient bedside
closed-ended question a question that requires a yes of no answer
co-insurance a percentage-based insurance plan whereby the patient must pay a certain percentage of the prescription price
co-payment (co-pay) the amount that the patient is to pay for each prescription
cold flow the tendency of a clamp on an IV administration set to return slowly to a more open position, with an increase in fluid flow
colloid the dispersion of ultrafine particles in a liquid formulation
comminution the act of reducing a substance to small, fine particles, including trituration, levigation, pulverization, spatulation , sifting, and tumbling
common law the system of precedents established by decisions in cases throughout legal history
community pharmacy any independent, chain or franchise pharmacy that dispenses prescription medications t outpatients; also called a retail pharmacy
compounded preparation a patient-specific medication prepared on-site by the technician under the direct supervision of the pharmacist, from individual ingredients
compounded sterile preparation (CSP) a sterile product that is prepared outside the pharmaceutical manufacturer's facility, typically in a hospital or compounding pharmacy
compounding the process of preparing a prescribed medication for an individual patient from bulk ingredients created by a pharmacist in order to treat a specified medical condition according to a prescription by a licensed prescriber
compounding log a printout of the prescription for a specific patient, including the amounts or weights of all ingredients and instructions for compounding; used by the technician to prepare a compounded medication for a patient
compounding pharmacy a pharmacy that specialized in the preparation of nonsterile (and sometimes sterile) preparations that are not commercially available
compounding slab a flat, hard, nonabsorbent surface used for mixing compounds; also known as an ointment slab
computer an electronic device for inputting, storing, processing, and/or outputting information
conjunctival route of administration the placement of sterile ophthalmic medications in the conjunctival sac of the eye (s)
continuation order a medication order written by a physician to continue treatment; like a refill of medication
continuous quality improvement (CQI) a process of written procedures designed to identify problems and recommend solutions
controlled substance a drug with potential for abuse; organized into five schedules that specify the way the drug must be stored, dispensed, recorded, and inventoried
Contolled Sustances Act (CSA) laws created to combat the control drug abuse
controlled-release dosage form the dosage form that is formulated to release medication over a long duration of time; also called delayed release
coordination of benefits (COB) online billing of both a primary and secondary insurer
coring the act of introducing a small chunk of the rubber closure into the solution while removing medication from a vial
counterbalance a two-pan balance used for weighing material up to 5 kg with a sensitivity rating of +/-100 mg
cream a cosmetically acceptable oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion for topical use on the skin
credential a documented piece of evidence of one's qualifications
credit card a method of online payment that is a type of loan, either paid totally at the end of the month or partially with a finance charge added
creep the tendency of a clamp on an IV administration set to return to its previous position
cytotoxic drug a hazardous drug that must be handled and prepared with extra precautions; such a drug may be used in cancer chemotherapy, an antiviral drug for a patient with HIV, a biological hormone, a bioengineered drug, or a radioactive pharmaceutical
database management system (DBMS) application that allows one to enter, retrieve, and query records
days supply the duration of time (number of days) a dispensed medication will last the patient and often required on drug claims submitted for insurance billing
DEA number an identification number assigned by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to identify someone authorized to handle or prescribe controlled substances within the United States
debit card a method of online cash payment that instantly deducts the cost of the purchase from the customer's bank account
decimal any number that can be written in decimal notation using the integers 0 through 9 and a point (.) to divide the "ones" place from the "tenths" place (e.g., 10.25 is equal to 10 1/4)
decorum proper or polite behavior that is in good taste
deductible an amount that must be paid by the insured before the insurance company considers paying its portion of a medical or drug cost
defendant one who defends against accusations brought forward in a lawsuit
denominator the number on the bottom part of a fraction that represents the whole
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the helix-shaped molecule that carries the genetic code
destructive agent a drug that kills bacteria, fungi, viruses, or even normal or cancer cells
diet supplement a category of nonprescription drugs that includes vitamins, minerals, and herbals that are not regulated by the FDA
digital electronic analytical balance a single-pan balance that is more accurate than Class III balances or counterbalances; it has a capacity of 100 g and sensitivity as low as =/-1 mg
diluent powder an inactive ingredient that is added to the active drug in compounding a tablet or capsule
diluent a sterile fluid added to a powder to reconstitute, dilute, or dissolve a medication
diluent an inert filler substance added as an inactive ingredient i9n tablets and capsules
direct compounding area (DCA) the sterile, compounding area in the IV room, in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled with a HEPA filter providing ISO Class 5 air quality
director of pharmacy the chief executive officer of the pharmacy department
discount a reduced price
discrimination preferential treatment or mistreatment
disinfectant a chemical applied to an object or topically to the body for sterilization purposes, such as rubbing alcohol
diskus a nonaerosolized powder that is used for inhalation
dispense as written (DAW) a notation indicating on a prescription that a brand name drug is necessary or that a generic substitution is not allowed; DAW2 is often used to indicate patient preference for a brand name drug
dispersion a liquid dosage form in which undissolved ingredients are mixed throughtout a liquid vehicle
dosage form the physical manifestation of a drug (e.g., capsule, tablet)
doughnut hole insurance coverage gap in Medicare part D programs by which the patient must pay 100 % of the cost of the medication
drop set the calibration in drops per milliliter on IV sets
dropper a measuring device sued to accurately dose medication for infants
drug delivery system a design feature of the dosage form that affects the delivery of the drug; such a system may protect the stomach or delay the release of the active drug
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) the branch of the U.S. Justice Department that is responsible for regulating the sale and use of drugs with abuse potential
drug recall the process of withdrawing a drug from the market by the FDA or the drug manufacturer for serious adverse effects or other defects in the product
drug seeker a customer who requests early refills on medications o0r gets prescriptions from multiple physicians for controlled substances in order to obtain more that the normally prescribed amount of medication
drug tolerance a situation that occurs when the body requires higher doses of a drug to produce the same therapeutic effect
drug utilization review (DUR) a procedure built into pharmacy software designed to help pharmacists check for potential medication errors in dosage, drug interactions, allergies, and so on
drug any substance taken into or applied to the body for the purpose of altering the body's biochemical functions and thus its physiological processes
dumb terminal a computer device that contains a keyboard and a monitor but does not contain its own storage and processing capabilities
durable medical equipment (DME) medical equipment such as hospital beds, wheelchairs, canes, or crutches that may be covered under Medicare Part B insurance
e-prescribing the transmission of a prescription via electronic means
effervescent salts granular salts that release gas and dispense active ingredients into solution when place in water
electrolyte a dissolved mineral salt, commonly found in IV fluids
electronic medication administration record (eMAR) documents the administration time of each drug to each patient often using bar-code technology
elixir a clear, sweetened, flavored solution containing water and ethanol
eMAR an electronic medication administration record, used to minimize medication errors
emulsion the dispersion of a liquid in another liquid varying in viscosity
enteric-coated tablet (ECT) a tablet coated in a way designed to resist destruction by the acidic pH of the gastric fluids and to delay the release of the active ingredient
estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) treatment consisting of some combination of female hormones
ethical dilemma a situation that calls for a judgment between two or more solutions, not all of which are necessarily wrong
ethics the study of standards of conduct and moral judgment that outlines the right or wrong of human conduct or character
etiquette unwritten rules of behavior
Exam of Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ExCPT) an examination developed by the Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ICPT) that technicians must pass to be certified and receive the title of CPht
expiration date the date after which a manufacturer's product should not be used
extended-release dosage form a tablet or capsule designed to reduce frequency of dosing compared with immediate-release and most sustained-release forms
extra dose error an error in which more doses are received by a patient than were prescribed by the physician
extract a potent dosage form derived from animal or plant sources from which most or all the solvent has been evaporated to produce a powder, an ointment-like form, or a solid
Fahrenheit temperature scale the temperature scale that used 32 F as the temperature at which water freezes at sea level and 212 F as the temperature at which it boils
FDA Online Orange Book an online reference that provides information on the generic and therapeutic equivalence of drugs that may have many different brand names of generic manufacturer sources
film-coated tablet (FCT) a tablet coated with a thin outer layer that prevents serious GI side effects
filter a device used to remove contaminants such as glass, paint, fibers, rubber cores, and bacteria from IV fluids
flex card a medical and prescription insurance credit card
floor stock medications stocked in a secured area on each patient care unit
fluidextract a liquid dosage form prepared by extraction from plant sources and commonly used in the formulation of syrups
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the agency of the federal government that is responsible for ensuring the safety and efficacy of food and drugs prepared fro the market
forceps an instrument used to pick up small objects, such as pharmacy weights
formulary a list of drugs that have been preapproved for use by a committee of health professionals; used in hospitals, in managed care, and by many insurance providers
fraction a portion of a whole that is represented as a ratio
franchise pharmacy a small chain of professional community pharmacies that dispense and prepare medications but are independently owned; sometimes called an apothecary
fungus a single-celled organism similar to human cells; marked by the absence of chlorophyll, a rigid cell wall, and reproduction by spores; feed on living organisms(or on dead organic material)
gel a dispersion containing fine particles for topical use on the skin
generic drug a drug that contains the same active ingredients as the brand name product and delivers the same amount of medication to the body in the same way and in the same amount of time; a drug that is not protected by a patent
generic name a common name that is given to a drug regardless of brand name; sometimes denotes a drug that is not protected by a trademark; for example, acetaminophen is the generic drug name for Tylenol
genetic engineering process of utilizing DNA biotechnology to create a variety of drugs
genome the entire DNA in an organism, including its genes
geometric dilution method the gradual combining of drugs using a mortar and pestle
germ theory of disease the idea that microorganisms cause diseases
glycerogelatin a topical preparation made with gelatin, glycerin, water, and medicinal substances
good compounding practices (GCP) USP standards in many areas of practice to ensure high-quality compounded preparations
graduate cylinder a flask used for measuring liquids
gram the metric system's base unit for measuring weight
granules a dosage form larger than powders that are formed by adding very small amounts of liquid to powders
gross profit the difference between the purchase price and the selling price; also called markup
hand hygiene the use of special dry, alcohol-based rinses, gels, or foams that do not require water
hand washing the use of plain or antiseptic soap and water with appropriate time and technique
harassment mistreatment ,whether sexual or otherwise
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) a comprehensive federal law passed in 1996 to protect all patient-identifiable medical information
health insurance coverage of incurred medical costs such as physician visits, laboratory costs, and hospitalization
health maintenance organization (HMO) an organization that provides health insurance using a managed care model
high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter a device used with laminar flow hoods to filter out most particulate matter to prepare parenteral products safely and aseptically
home healthcare pharmacy a pharmacy that dispenses, prepares, and delivers drugs and medical supplies directly to the home of the patient
home healthcare the delivery of medical, nursing, and pharmaceutical services and supplies to patients at home
homeopathic medications very small dilutions of natural drugs claimed to stimulate the immune system
horizontal laminar airflow workbench (LAFW) a special biological safety cabinet used to prepare IV drug admixtures, nutrition solutions, and other parenteral products aseptically
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) therapy consisting of some combination of estrogen and progestin (female) and androgen (male) hormones
hospital pharmacy an institutional pharmacy that dispenses and prepares drugs and provides clinical services in a hospital setting
human failure an error generated by failure that occurs at an individual level
hypertonic solution a parenteral solution with a greater number of particles than the number of particles found in blood (greater than 285 mOsm/L); also called hyperosmolar, as in a TPN solution
hypotonic solution a patenteral solution with a fewer number of particles than the number of particles found in blood (less than 295 m0sm/L); also called hypoosmolar
independent pharmacy a community pharmacy that is privately owned by the pharmacist
inert ingredient an inactive chemical that has little or no physiological effect that is added to one or more active ingredients to improve drug formulations such as fillers, preservatives, colorings, and flavorings; also called inactive ingredient
infection control committee (ICC) a committee of the hospital that provides leadership in relation to infection control policies
informed consent written permission by the patient to participate in an IRB-approved research study in terms understandable to the lay public
injection the administration of a parenteral medication into the bloodstream, muscle, or skin
impatient drug distribution system a pharmacy system to deliver all types of drugs to a patient in the hospital setting; commonly includes unit dose, repackaged medication , floor stock, and IV admixture and TPN services
inscription the part of the prescription listing the medication of medications prescribed, including the drug names, strengths, and amounts
Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) a nonprofit healthcare agency whose primary mission is to understand the causes of medication errors and to provide time-critical error reduction strategies to the healthcare community, policymakers, and the public
institutional pharmacy a pharmacy that is organized under a corporate structure, following specific rules and regulations for accreditation
institutional review board (IRB) a committee of the hospital that ensures that appropriate protection is provided to patients using investigational drugs; sometimes referred to as the human use committee
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) a classification system to measure the amount of particulate matter in room air; the lower the ISO number, the less particulate matter is present in the air
intrarespiratory route of administration the administration of a drug by inhalation into the lungs; also called inhalation
intrauterine device a device to deliver medication to prevent conception or to treat cancer within the uterus
intravenous (IV) infusion the process of injecting fluid or medication into the veins, usually over a prolonged period of time
inventory value the total value of the entire stock of products on hand for sale on a given day
inventory the entire stock of products on hand for sale at a given time
investigational drugs drugs used in clinical trials that have not yet been approved by the FDA for use in the general population or drugs used for nonapproved indications
irrigating solution any solution used for cleansing or bathing an area of the body, such as the eyes or ears
isotonic solution a parental solution with an equal number or particles as blood cells (285 m0sm/L); 0.9% normal saline is isotonic
IV administration set a sterile, pyrogen-free disposable device used to deliver IV fluids to patient
IV admixture service a centralized pharmacy service that prepares IV and TPN solutions in a sterile, germ-free work environment
IV piggyback (IVPB) a small-volume IV infusion (50 mL, 100 mL, 250 mL) containing medications
IV push (IVP) the rapid injection of a medication in a syringe into an IV line or catheter in the patient's arm; also called bolus injection
jelly a gel that contains a higher proportion of water in combination with a drug substance, as well as a thickening agent
Joint Commission an independent, not--for-profit group that sets the standards by which safety and quality of health care are measured and accredits hospitals caccording to those standards; previously Joint Commission on Accredictation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)
just-in-time (JIT) purchasing involves frequent purchasing in quantities that just next supply needs until the next ordering time
large-volume parenteral (LVP) an IV fluid of more than 250 mL that may contain drugs, nutrients, or electrolytes
law of agency and contracts the general principle that allows an employee to enter into contracts on the employer's behalf
law a rule that is designed to protect the public and usually enforced through local, state, or federal governments
leading zero a zero that is place in the ones place in a number less than one that is being represented by a decimal value
legend drug a drug that requires a prescription from a licensed provider for a valid medical purpose
levigation a process usually used to reduce the particle size of a solid during the preparation of an ointment
licensure the granting of a license by the state, usually to work in a profession, in order to protect the public
liniment a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin, such as Ben Gay
liter the metric system's base unit for measuring volume
local effect the site-specific application of a drug
long-term care facility an institution that provides care for geriatric and disabled patients; includes extended- care facility (ECF) and skilled-care facility (SCF)
lotion a liquid for topical application that contains insoluble dispersed solids or immiscible liquids
lozenge a medication in a sweet-tasting formulation that is absorbed in the mouth
magma a milklike liquid colloidal dispersion in which particles remain distinct, in a two-phase system; for example, milk of magnesia
mail-order pharmacy a large-volume centralized pharmacy operation that uses automation to fill and mail prescriptions to a patient
malpractice a form of negligence in which the standard of care was not met and was a direct cause of injury
managed care a type of health insurance system that emphasizes keeping the patient healthy or diseases controlled in order to reduce healthcare cost
manufactured products products prepared off-site by a manufacturer
markup the difference between the purchase price and the selling price; also called gross profit
master control record a recipe for a compound preparation that lists the name, strength, dosage form, ingredients and their quantities, mixing instructions, and beyond-use dating
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contains important information on hazardous and flammability of chemicals used in compounding and procedure for treatment of accidental ingestion or exposure
MedGuide written patient information mandated by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for select high-risk drugs; also known as a patient medication guide
Medicaid a state government health insurance program for low-income and disabled citizens
medical error any circumstance, action, inaction, or decision related to health care that contributes to an unintended health result
Medicare Part D a voluntary insurance program that provides partial coverage of prescriptions for patients who are eligible for Medicare
medication administration record (MAR) a form in the patient medical chart used by nurses to document the administration time of all drugs
medication container label a label containing the dosage directions from the physician, affixed to the container of the dispensed medication; the technician may use this hard copy to select the correct stock bottle and to fill the prescription
Medication Error Reporting Program (MERP) a USP program designed to allow healthcare professionals to report medication errors directly to the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)
medication error any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional, patient, or consumer
medication order a prescription written in the hospital setting
medication special a single dose preparation not commercially available that is repackaged and made for a particular patient
MEDMARX an Internet-based program of the USP for use by hospitals and healthcare systems for documenting, tracking, and identifying trends for adverse events and medication errors
MedWatch a voluntary program run by the FDA for reporting serious adverse events for medications and medical devices; serves as a clearing house for information on safety alerts and drug recalls
meniscus the moon-shaped or concave appearance of a liquid in a graduated cylinder used in measurement
meter the metric system's base unit for measuring length
metered-dose inhaler (MDI) a device used to administer a drug in the form of compressed gas through the mouth into the lungs
metric system a measurement system based on subdivisions and multiples of 10; made up of three basic units: meter, gram, and liter
microemulsion a clear formation that contains one liquid of extremely fine size droplets dispersed in another liquid; for example Haley's M-O
military time a measure of time based on a 24 hour clock in which midnight is 0000, noon is 1200, and the minute before midnight is 2359; also referred to as international time
mortar and pestle equipment used for mixing and grinding pharmaceutical ingredients
multiple compression tablet (MCT) a tablet formulation on top of a tablet or a tablet within a tablet, produces by multiple compressions in manufacturing
nasal route of administration the placement of sprays or solutions into the nose
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) an organization that represents the practice of pharmacy in each state and develops pharmacist licensure
National Drug Code (NDC) Number a unique number assigned to a brand name, generic, or OTC product to identify the manufacturer, drug, and packaging size
nebulizer a device used to deliver medication in a fine-mist form to the lungs; often used in treating asthma
negligence a tort for not providing the minimum standard of care
new drug application (NDA) the process through which drug sponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the United States
nonpyrogenic the state of being free from microorganisms; a description of a packaged IV set
nonsterile compounding the preparation of a medication, in an appropriate quantity and dosage form, from several pharmaceutical ingredients in response to a prescription written by a physician, such as tablets, capsules, ointments, or creams
nonverbal communication communication without words through facial expression, body contact, body position, and tone of voice
nosocomial infection an infection caused by bacteria found in hospital from any source that causes a patient to develop and infectious disease; also called healthcare-associated infection (HAI)
notice of privacy practice a written policy of the pharmacy to protect patient confidentially, as required by HIPPA
nuclear pharmacy a specialized practice that compounds and dispenses sterile radioactive pharmaceuticals to diagnose or treat disease
numerator the number on the upper part of a fraction that represents the part of the whole
ocular route of administration the placement of ophthalmic medications into the eye
oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion an emulsion containing a small amount of oil dispersed in water, as in cream
ointment a semi-solid emulsion for topical use on the skin
omission error an error in which a prescribed dose is not given
online adjudication real-time insurance claims processing via wireless telecommunications
open-ended question a question that requires a descriptive answer, not merely yes or no
oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) a solid oral dosage form designed to dissolve quickly on the tongue for oral absorption
oral route of administration the administration of medication through swallowing along the GI tract into systemic circulation
oral syringe a needleless device for administering medication to pediatric or older adult patients unable to swallow tablets or capsules
organizational failure an error generated by failure of organizational rules, policies, or procedures
orphan drug a medication approved by the FDA to treat rare diseases
osmolarity a measure of the milliosmoles of solute per liter of solution (mOsm/L); for example, the osmolarity of blood is 285 mOsm/L; often referred to as tonicity for IV solutions
osmotic pressure the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent
otic route of administration the placement of solutions or suspensions into the ear
out of stock (OOS) a medication not in stock in the pharmacy; a drug that must be specially ordered from a drug wholesaler
over-the-counter (OTC) drug a medication that the FDA has approved for sale without a prescription
paraprofessional a trained person who assists a professional person
parenteral route of administration the injection or infusion of fluids and/or medication into the body, bypassing the GI tract
parenteral solution a product that is prepared in a sterile environment for administration by injection
partial fill a supply dispensed to hold the patient until a new supply is received from the wholesaler because insufficient inventory in the pharmacy prevents completely filling the prescription
paste a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion containing more solid material than an ointment
pasteurization a sterilization process designed to kill most bacteria and mold in milk and other liquids
pathophysiology the study of disease and illnesses affecting the normal function of the body
patient identifiers any demographic information that can identify the patient, such as name, address, phone number, Social Security number, or medical identification number
patient information sheet a leaflet printed from the prescription software and provided to patients on each medication dispensed; the tech may use this hard copy to select the correct drug stock bottle and fill the prescription
patient profile a record kept by the pharmacy listing a patient's identifying information, insurance information, medical and prescription history, and prescription preferences
patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) infusion device a device used by a patient to deliver small doses of medication to the patient for chronic pain relief
percent the number or ratio per 100
percentage of error the acceptable range of variation above and below the target measurement; used in compounding and manufacturing
perpetual inventory record unit-by-unit accountability, often requires for Schedule II controlled inventory records
pH value the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; less than 7 is acidic and more than 7 is alkaline; the pH of blood is 7.4
pharmaceutical alternative drug product a drug product that contains the same active therapeutic ingredient but contains different salts or different dosage forms; cannot be substituted without prescriber authorization
pharmaceutical care a philosophy of care that expanded the pharmacist's role to include appropriate medication use to achieve positive outcomes with prescribed drug therapy
pharmaceutical elegance the physical appearance of the final compound preparation
pharmaceutical weights measures of various sizes made of polished brass, often used with a two-pan Class III prescription balance; available in both metric and apothecary weights
pharmaceutics the study of the release characteristics of specific drug dosage forms
pharmacist one who is licensed to prepare and dispense medications, counsel patients, and monitor outcomes pursuant to a prescription from a licensed health professional
pharmacodynamics agent a drug that alters body functions in a desired way
pharmacognosy the study of medicinal functions of natural products of animal, plant, or mineral origins
pharmacokinetics individualized doses of drugs based on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination
pharmacology the scientific study of drugs and their mechanisms of action
pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committee a committee of the hospital that reviews, approves, and revises the hospital's formulary of drugs and maintains the drug use policies of the hospital
Pharmacy Compounding Accrediting Board (PCAB) an organization that provides quality standards for a compounding pharmacy through voluntary accreditation
Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination (PTCE) an examination developed by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) that technicians must pass to be certified and receive the title of CPhT
pharmacy technician an individual working in a pharmacy who, under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist, assists in activities not requiring the professional judgment of a pharmacist; also called the pharmacy tech or tech
physical dependence taking a drug continuously such that physical withdrawal symptoms like restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, and "goosebumps" occur if not taken
pipette a long, thin, calibrated hallow tube used for measuring liquids less then 1.5 mL
plaintiff one who files a lawsuit for the courts to decide
plaster a solid or semisolid, medicated or nonmedicated preparation that adheres to the skin
policy and procedure manual a book outlining activities in the pharmacy, defining the roles of individuals and listing guidelines
posting the process of reconciling the invoice and updating inventory
powder volume (pv) the amount of space occupied by a freeze-dried medication in a sterile vial, used for reconstitution; equal to the difference between the final volume (fv) and the volume of the diluting ingredient, or the diluent volume (dv)
powders fine particles of medication used in tablets and capsules
prescription benefits manager (PBM) a company that administers drug benefits from many insurance companies
prescription record a computer-generated version of the compounding log that documents the compounding recipe for a specific prescription and patient
prescription an order written by a qualified, licensed practitioner for a medication to be filled by a pharmacist for a patient in order to treat a qualified medical condition
prime vendor purchasing an agreement made by a pharmacy for a specified percentage or dollar volume of purchases
priming the act of flushing out the small particles in the tubing's interior lumen prior to medication administration and letting fluid run through the tubing so that all of the air is flushed out
prior authorization (PA) approval for coverage of a high-cost medication or a medication not on the insurer's approved formulary, obtained after a prescriber calls the insurer to justify the use of the drug; must be obtained before the drug is dispensed by the pharmacy in order t
product package insert (PPI) scientific information supplied to the pharmacist and technician by the manufacturer with all prescription drug products; the information must be approved by the FDA
professional standards guidelines of acceptable behavior and performance established by professional associations
professional someone with recognized expertise in a field who is expected to use his or her knowledge and skills to benefit others and to operate ethically with some autonomy
profit the amount of revenue received that exceeds the expense of the sold product
prophylactic agent a drug used to prevent disease
proportion a comparison of equal ratios; the product of the means equals the product of the extremes
protected health information (PHI) medical information that is protected by HIPPA, such a medical diagnosis, medication profiles, and results of laboratory tests
protozoa a single-celled organism that inhabits water and soil
psychological dependence taking a drug on a regular basis because it produces a sense of well-being; if the drug is stopped suddenly, anxiety withdrawal symptoms can result
pulverization the process of reducing particle size, especially by using a solvent
punch method a method for filling capsules in which the body of a capsule is repeatedly punched into a cake of medication until the capsule is full
purchasing the ordering of products for use or sale by the pharmacy
pyrogen a fever-producing by-product of microbial metabolism
quality assurance (QA) program a feedback system to improve care by identifying and correcting the cause of a medication error or improper technique
radiopharmaceutical a drug containing radioactive ingredients, often used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
ratio a comparison of numeric value
receipt a printout that is a proof of purchase
receiving a series of procedures for accepting the delivery of products to the pharmacy
recertification the periodic updating of certification
reciprocation the administrative process for relicensure of pharmacists in another state
rectal route of administration the delivery of medication via the rectum
refill an approval by the prescriber to dispense the prescribed medication again without the need for a new prescription order
registration mandatory signing up or registering with the State Board of Pharmacy before starting to practice
regulation a written rule and procedure that exists to carry out a law of the state or federal government
regulatory law the system of rules and regulations established by governmental bodies
remote computer a minicomputer or a mainframe that stores and processes data sent from a dumb terminal
repackaging control log a form used in the pharmacy when drugs are repackaged from manufacturer stock bottles to unit doses; the log contains the name of the drug, dose, quantity, manufacturer lot number, expiration date, and the initials of the pharmacy technician and pharmacis
ribonucleic acid (RNA) an important component of the genetic code that arranges amino acids into proteins
root-cause analysis a logical and systematic process used to help identify what, how, and why something happened, in order to prevent recurrence
route of administration a way of getting a drug onto or into the body, such as orally, topically, or parenterally
safety paper a special tamper-proof paper required in many states of C-II prescriptions to minimize forgeries
Schedule II drug administration record a manual or electronic form on the patient care unit to account for each dose of each narcotic administered to a patient
Schedule V drug a medication with a low potential for abuse and a limited potential for creating physical or psychological dependence; available in most states without a prescription
selection error an error that occurs when two or more options exist and the incorrect option s chosen
semisynthetic drug a drug that contains both natural and synthetic components
sentinel event an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury or the potential for occurrences to happen
sharp a used needle, which can be a source of infection
sifting a process used to blend powders through the use of a sieve
signa ("sig") the part of the prescription that indicates the directions for the patient to follow when taking the medication
small-volume parenteral (SVP) an IV fluid of 250 mL or less commonly used for infusion of drugs; with medication, also called an IV piggyback
smart terminal a computer that contains its own storage and processing capabilities
solute an ingredient dissolved in a solution or dispensed in a suspension
solution a liquid dosage form in which the active ingredients are completely dissolved in a liquid vehicle
solvent the vehicle that makes up the greater part of a solution
spatula a stainless steel, plastic, or hard rubber instrument used for transferring or mixing solid pharmaceutical ingredients
spatulation a process used to blend ingredients, often used in the preparation of creams and ointments
specific gravity the ratio of the weight of a substance compared to an equal volume of water when both have the same temperature
spike the sharp plastic end of IV tubing that is attached to an IV bag of fluid
spirit an alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution containing volatile, aromatic ingredients
spray the dosage form that consists of a container with a valve assembly that, when activated, emits a fine dispersion of liquid, solid, or gaseous material
stability the extent to which a compounded product retains the same physical and chemical properties and characteristics it possessed at the time of preparation
standard of care the usual and customary level of practice in the community
standard a set of criteria to measure product quality or professional performance against a norm
stat order a medication order that is to be filled and sent to the patient care unit immediately
sterile compounding the preparation of a parenteral product in the hospital, home healthcare, nuclear, or community pharmacy setting; an example is an intravenous antibiotic
sterilization a process that destroys the microorganisms in a substance, resulting in asepsis
sublingual route of administration oral administration in which a drug is placed under the tongue and is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream
subscription the part of the prescription that lists instructions to the pharmacist about dispensing the medication, information about compounding, packaging or labeling instructions, refill info & info about the appropriateness of dispensing drug equivalencies
sugar-coated tablet (SCT) a tablet coated with an outside layer of sugar that protects the medication and improves both appearance and flavor
suppository a solid formulation containing a drug for rectal or vaginal administration
suspension the dispersion of a solid in a liquid
sustained-release (SR) dosage form a delayed-release dosage form that allows less frequent dosing than an immediate-release dosage form
synthetic drug a drug that is artificially created but in imitation of naturally occurring substances
syringe a device used to inject a parenteral solution into the bloodstream, muscle, or under the skin
syrup an aqueous solution thickened with a large amount of sugar (generally sucrose) or a sugar substitute such as sorbitol or propylene glycol
systemic effect the distribution of a drug throughout the body by adsorption into the bloodstream
tablet splitter a device used to manually split or score tablets
tablet the solid dosage form produced by compression and containing one or more active and inactive ingredients
technical failure an error generated by failure because of location or equipment
therapeutic agent a drug that prevents, cures, diagnoses, or relieves symptoms of a disease
therapeutic effect the desired pharmacological action of a drug on the body
therapeutics the study of applying pharmacology to the treatment of illness and disease states
tiered co-pay an escalating cost or co-pay for a generic drug, a preferred brand name drug, and a non-preferred brand name drug
tincture an alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution of extractions from plants
topical route of administration the administration of a drug on the skin or any mucous membrane such as the eyes, nose, ears, lungs, vagina, urethra, or rectum; usually administered directly to the surface of the skin
tort the legal term for personal injuries that one citizen commits against another in a lawsuit
total parental nutrition (TPN) a specifically formulated parenteral solution that provides nutritional needs intravenously (IV) to a patient who cannot or will not eat
transdermal dosage form a formulation designed to deliver a continuous supply of drug into the bloodstream by absorption through the skin via a patch or disk
triage the assessment by the pharmacist of an illness or symptom; outcome may be to recommend an OTC product, or refer patient to a physician or emergency room
Tricare a federal government health insurance program for active and retires military and their dependents
trituration the process of rubbing, grinding, or pulverizing a substance to create fine particles, generally by means of a mortar and pestle
tumbling a process used to combine powders by placing them in a bag or container and shaking it
unit dose cart a moveable storage unit that contains individual patient drawers of medication for all patients on a given patient care unit
unit dose profile the documentation that provides the information necessary to prepare the unit doses, including patient name and location, medication and strength, frequency or schedule of administration, and quantity for each order
unit dose an amount of a drug that has been prepackaged or repackaged for a single administration to a particular patient at a particular time
unit of use a fixed number of dose units in a drug stock container, usually consisting of a month's supply, or 30 tablets or capsules
United States Pharmacopeia (USP) the independent scientific organization responsible for setting official quality standards for all drugs sold in the United States as well as standards for practice
United States Pharmacopeia- National Formulary (USP-NF) a book that contains U.S. standards for medicine, dosage forms, drug substances, excipients or inactive substances, medical devices, and dietary supplements
universal precautions procedures followed in healthcare settings to prevent infection as a result of exposure to blood or other bodily fluids
urethral route of administration the administration of a drug by insertion into the urethra
USP Chapter 797 guidelines on the sterility and stability of CSPs developed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) that have become standards for hospital accreditation
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) a postmarketing surveillance system operated by the FDA and CDC that collects information on adverse events that occur after immunization
vaccine a substance introduced into the body in order to produce immunity to disease
vaginal route of administration the administration of a drug by application of a cream or insertion of a tablet into the vagina
vertical laminar airflow workbench (LAFW) a special biological safety cabinet used to prepare hazardous drugs, such as cancer chemotherapy drugs, aseptically
virus a minute infectious agent that does not have all of the components of a cell and thus can replicate only within a living host cell
water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion an emulsion containing a small amount of water dispersed in oil, such as an ointment
weighing paper a special paper that is placed on a weighing balance pan to avoid contact between pharmaceutical ingredients and the balance tray; also called powder paper
wholesaler purchasing the ordering of drugs and supplies from a local vendor who delivers the product to the pharmacy on a daily basis
workers' compensation insurance provided for a patient with a medical injury from a job-related accident; also called workers' comp
wrong dosage form error an error in which the dosage form or formulation is not the accepted interpretation of the physician order
wrong dose error an error in which the dose is either above or below the correct dose by more than 5%
wrong time error a medication error in which a drug is given 30 minutes or more before or after it was prescribed, up to the time of the next dose, not including as needed orders
Y-site a rigid piece of plastic with one arm terminating in a resealable port that is used for adding medication to the IV
Created by: denisonjobcorps



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