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Unit 7

Cognition

TermDefinition
Memory The mental capacities to encode, store, and retrieve information.
Declarative Memory Memory for information, such as facts and events.
Procedural Memory Memory for how things get done; the way perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills are acquired, retained, and used.
Echoic Memory Sensory memory that allows auditory information to be stored for brief durations.
Short-term memory Memory processes associated with preservation of recent experiences and with retrieval of information from long-term memory.
Chunking The process of taking single items of information and recoding them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle.
Long-term memory (LTM) Memory processes associated with the preservation of information for retrieval at any time.
Serial position effect A characteristic of memory retrieval in which the recall of beginning and end items on a list is often better than recall of items appearing in the middle.
Recall A method of retrieval in which and individual is required to reproduce the information previously presented.
Recognition A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to identify stimuli as having been experienced before.
Retrieval cues Internally and externally generated stimuli available to help with the retrieval of a memory.
Episodic memories Long-term memories for autobiographical events and the contexts in which these occured.
Semantic memories Generic, categorical memories, such as the meanings of words and concepts.
Interference A memory phenomenon that occurs when retrieval cues do not point effectively to a specific memory.
Levels-of-processing theory A theory that suggests that the deeper the level at which information was processed, the more likely it is to be retained in memory.
Priming In the assessment of implcit memory, the advantage conferred by prior exposure to a word or situation.
Elaborative rehearsal A technique for improving memory by enriching the encoding of information.
Mnemonics Strategies or devices that use familiar information during the encoding of new information to enhance subsequent access to the information in memory.
Concepts Mental representations of kinds or categories of items or ideas.
Prototype The most representative example of a category.
Schemas General conceptual frameworks or clusters of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and situations; knowledge packages that encode generalization about the structure of the environment.
Reconstructive memory The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of specific memory representation.
Engram The physical memory trace for information in the brain.
Amnesia A failure of memory caused by physical injury, disease, drug use, or psychological trauma.
Created by: Mr.Knock