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Chapter 4

The Human Puzzle Chapter 4 Study Material

TermDefinition
Behavior Modification The systematic application of learning principles in attempts to change behavior.
Behavioristic Theories Theories concerned with objective evidence of behavior rather than with consciousness and mind.
Blocking A phenomenon in classical conditioning in which conditioning to a specific stimulus becomes difficult or impossible because of prior conditioning to another stimulus.
Classical Conditioning A process in which the repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an effective stimulus eventually leads to the neutral stimulus by itself producing a response similar to that of the effective stimulus.
Cognitive Apprenticeship An instructional model wherein parents, siblings,other adults, and especially teachers serve as a combination of model, guide, tutor, mentor, and coach to foster intellectual growth among learners.
Cognitivism A general term for approaches to learning concerned with intellectual events such as problem solving, information processing, thinking, and imagining.
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement A situation in which two or more different reinforcement schedules, each typically related to a different behavior, are presented at the same time.
Conditioned Response (CR) A response elicited by a conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that elicits a response after learning (conditioning) has occurred.
Constructivism A general term for student-centered approaches to teaching, such as discovery-oriented approaches, reciprocal learning, or cooperative instruction.
Contiguity Temporal closeness. The state of being simultaneous or nearly simultaneous.
Direct Reinforcement Reinforcement that a person receives as a direct consequence of an action.
Discovery Learning A learner-centered approach to teaching in which the acquisition of new knowledge comes about largely through the learner’s own efforts.
Discriminative Stimuli Skinner’s term for the features of a situation that an organism can discriminate to distinguish between occasions that might be reinforced or not reinforced.
Eliciting Effect Imitative behavior in which the observer does not copy the model’s responses but simply behaves in a related manner.
Extinction A conditioning procedure, typically involving presenting a CS without a US or withdrawing reinforcement, thereby eliminating a response.
Extrinsic Reinforcement Reinforcement associated with external rewards like food, money, high grades, praise, and so on.
Imitation Copying behavior. To imitate a person’s behavior is simply to use that person’s behavior as a pattern.
Inhibitory/Disinhibitory Effect The type of imitative behavior that results either in the suppression (inhibition) or appearance (disinhibition) of previously acquired deviant behavior.
Insight The sudden perception of relationships among elements of a problem situation.
Instincts Complex, species-specific, relatively unmodifiable patterns of behaviors, such as migration or nesting in some birds and animals.
Intrinsic Reinforcement Reinforcement associated with internal sources of reinforcement like satisfaction and feelings of competence and worth.
Law of Effect Thorndike’s law, basic to operant conditioning, which states that the effect of a response leads to its being learned or not learned.
Learning An actual or latent change in behavior due to experience.
Modeling Effect The type of imitative behavior that involves learning a novel response.
Models A pattern for behavior that can be copied by someone. Also refers to descriptions of objects or phenomena. In science, models often serve as a sort of mental guide.
Negative Reinforcer A stimulus that, when eliminated or removed, has the effect of increasing the probability of occurrence of the response that immediately precedes it.
Observational Learning Learning through imitation.
Operant Conditioning Learning that involves an increase in the probability of a response as a function of reinforcement.
Operant An apparently voluntary response emitted by an organism.
Positive Reinforcer A stimulus added to a situation immediately after a response has occurred that increases the probability that the response will recur.
Primary Reinforcers An event that is reinforcing in the absence of any learning, like food and drink.
Reciprocal Teaching An instructional technique that involves teaching four cognitive strategies for increasing reading comprehension: generating questions, summarizing, clarifying word meanings and confusing text, and predicting what will happen next.
Reflex A simple, unlearned behavior like blinking in response to something coming toward the eye.
Reinforcement The effect of a reinforcer.
Reinforcer A stimulus that increases the probability that a response will reoccur.
Respondent A response elicited by a known, specific stimulus. An unconditioned response.
Response A muscular, glandular, or mental reaction to a stimulus.
Secondary Reinforcer An event that becomes reinforcing as a result of being paired with other reinforcers.
Self-Efficacy Judgments we make about how effective we are in given situations.
Shaping An operant conditioning technique for training animals to perform complex behaviors by systematically reinforcing progressively closer approximations to the desired behavior.
Skinner Box An experimental chamber devised by Skinner to study operant conditioning.
Social Cognitive Theory An explanation of learning and behavior that emphasizes the role of social reinforcement and imitation as well as the importance of the cognitive processes that allow people to imagine and to anticipate.
Stimuli A physical stimulus is any change in the physical environment capable of exciting a sense organ.
Stimulus Discrimination Making different responses to related but distinct stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization The transference of a response from one stimulus (situation) to another.
Symbolic Models A model other than a real-life person.
Triadic Reciprocal Determinism Bandura’s notion that personal characteristics, behavior, and the environment all affect each other reciprocally.
Unconditioned Response (UR) A response that is unlearned, that occurs automatically.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) A stimulus that elicits a response without requiring learning.
Vicarious Reinforcement Reinforcement that results from observing someone else being reinforced.
Created by: AlignStudyStack