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Science Review

6th Grade Science Review

Matter the substance that every physical object is made of
Atom the smallest component of matter
Proton Positively charged (+) piece of an atom found in the nucleus
Neutron Neutral (no charge) piece of an atom found in the nucleus
Electron Negatively (-) charged piece of an atom that orbits the nucleus
Nucleus The center of an atom containing protons and neutrons
Element a simple chemical substance organized on the Periodic Table
Phase a stage in a process of change or development
Solid a body or object having three dimensions (length, width, and height); rigid
Liquid a substance that takes the form of its container; not rigid, fluid
Gas a substance with no definite shape (ex: water vapor, oxygen)
Plasma super heated gas that has a electric charge
Periodic Table a table illustrating the periodic system, in which the chemical elements are ordered by atomic number
Amorphous Solid A solid that can easily change between states of matter
Crystalline Solid A solid that stays in its rigid form
Boiling Point the temperature at which a substance boils (Liquid Gas)
Melting Point the temperature at which a solid melts (SolidLiquid)
Density The state or quality of being dense compactness or heavy for its size
Solubility the ability to dissolve in water
Mass the amount of matter something has
Weight The force that gravity exerts upon an object
Mechanical Energy related to the movement of objects or its position in gravity
Sound Energy relates to the repetitive compression (squeezing) and rarefaction (letting out) of molecules in a substance (solid liquid or gas).
Chemical Energy related to the potential energy stored in the bonds between atoms in a compound
Radiant (Light) Energy related to the vibrations of an electrical charge or magnetic field that produces electromagnetic waves that can travel through a vacuum such as space
Electrical Energy related to the movement or flow of electrons which carry a charge
Thermal (Heat) Energy related to the motion of atoms or molecules in a substance
Nuclear Energy related to the potential energy stored in bonds between particles in the nucleus of an atom
Potential Energy stored energy and the energy of positional gravitational energy
Kinetic Energy energy of motion — of waves
Longitudinal Wave particles of the medium are displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport (slinky)
Transverse Wave particles of the medium are displaced in a direction perpendicular to the direction of energy transport
Light particles or waves that makes things visible
Electromagnetic Spectrum the entire spectrum, a continuum, of all kinds of electric, magnetic, and visible radiation, from gamma rays
Translucent allowing some light to pass through, blurry image can be seen
Transparent allows most light to pass through, clear image can be seen.
Opaque reflection or absorption of all light, no image can be seen
Refraction the bending of light when it moves from one kind of matter to another
Reflection the bouncing of light off an object
Absorption the stopping of light when it hits a wall or other opaque objects
Prism a solid object that can bend light, not a lens
Cornea Transparent cover of the eye
Pupil Opening of the eye that allows light to enter
Iris Ring of muscle that contracts and expands to change the size of the pupil. Also give the eye its color.
Retina Layer of cells that lines the inside of the eyeball. It is made up of rods and cones.
Rods Cells that allow you to see dim light
Cones Cells that allow you to see color
Optic Nerve Sends a signal to the brain along a short thick nerve
Near-Sighted eye is too long, which causes a person to see objects in the distance blurry
Far-Sighted eye is too short, which causes a person to see objects close up as blurry
Primary Colors Three colors that combine to make any other color
Complimentary Colors Any two colors that combine to form white light
Pigments Color substances that are used to color other materials
Longitudinal or Compression Wave particles of the medium are displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport (looks like a slinky) Ex Sound Waves
Transverse Wave particles of the medium are displaced in a direction perpendicular to the direction of energy transport.Ex Light Waves
Auricle Outer part of the ear which we can see. Channels sound into the inner ear
Outer Ear Canal produces ear wax and continues to funnel sound waves to the ear drum
Eardrum located in the middle ear and is a sensitive piece of tightly stretched skin that turn the sound waves into vibrations
Ossicles small bones located in the inner ear that helps to send sound waves to the cochlea. The ossicles include the hammer, anvil and stirrup bones
Cochlea small curved tube filled with liquid that sends messages to the brain
Eustachian tube a small tube connecting your middle ear to the back of your nose that acts like a pressure valve (makes your ears pop when air escapes)
Geologist a scientist who studies what the earth is made of and how it was formed
Seismic Waves waves produced by an earthquake that are studied to learn more about the Earth’s interior
Pressure the force pressing on an area
Crust Top layer of the Earth’s interior that includes dry land and the ocean floor
Mantle under the crust this layer is made up of hot, solid rock
Core is the third main layer of the earth’s interior. The earth has a liquid outer core and a solid inner core.
Basalt a type of rock in the oceanic crust of the earth; is dark in color and has a fine texture
Granite a type of rock in continental crust; is light in color and has a coarse texture
Pollutant Substances that cause pollution
Emissions Pollutants that are released into the air
Photochemical Smog Thick, brownish haze formed when certain gases react with sunlight
Ozone The gases found in smog react in the sunlight to form an oxygen like substance known as ozone
Temperature Inversion Weather condition where a layer of warm air prevents the rising air from escaping. As a result, the polluted air is trapped and held close to the Earth’s surface
Acid Rain Precipitation that is more acidic than normal because of air pollutants. It is caused by emissions from power plants and factories that burn coal and oil
Radon Colorless, odorless radioactive gas that naturally occurs because of certain rock types underground
Ground Water the water stored in soil and rock beneath the Earth’s Surface
Pesticides chemicals that kill crop-destroying organisms
Sediments particles of rock and sand
Weathering the process that breaks down rock and other substances at the earth’s surface
Erosion the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice or gravity
Mechanical Weathering type of weathering where the rocks are physically broken down into smaller pieces
Ice Wedging When water expands and freezes creating cracks in rocks. Over time water continues to seep into rock creating bigger cracks eventually breaking the rock into pieces
Chemical Weathering the process that breaks down rocks chemically (ex water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, acid rain)
Permeable the material is full of tiny connected spaces that allow water to seep through it
Soil loose weathered material on the Earth’s surface in which plants can grow
Bedrock solid layer of rock beneath the soil
Humus a dark colored substance that forms as remains of animals or plants decay
Soil Fertility how well soil supports plant growth
Loam soil that is made up of equal parts sand, silt and clay
Topsoil crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay and minerals (Horizon A)
Subsoil located underneath topsoil (Horizon B) usually consists of clay and minerals that wash down from Horizon A.
Litter loose layer of leaves and dead grass
Decomposers organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them into chemicals
Sod thick mass of tough roots at the surface of soil
Dust Bowl Area of the Great Plains that was experiencing a severe drought in the 1930s. Because of the drought, the soil became infertile and wind erosion carried the soil in huge dust clouds.
Soil Conservation the management of soil to prevent its destruction
Crop Rotation when a farmer plants different crops in a field each year
Created by: brugnoc