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Week 2-3 class 118

Medical Terminology 118

Ventral Refers to belly or underside of a body or part
Dorsal Refers to the back
Cranial Means toward the head
Caudal Means towards the rear of the body
Anterior means front of the body - used more for organs
Posterior Means rear of the body
Rostral Means nose end of the head
Cephalic Means pertaining to the head
Medial Means toward the midline
Lateral Means away from the midline
Superior Means uppermost, above or toward the head
Inferior Means lowermost, below or towards the tail
Proximal Means neares the midline or the nearest to the beginning of a structure
Distal Means farthest from the medline or farthest from the beginning of a structure
Superficial Means near the surface, also called External
Deep Means away from the surface also called Internal
Palmer Means the Caudal surface of the Manus ( front paw ) including the carpus ( means palm of the hand )
Plantar Means the caudal surface of the pes ( rear paw) inclucing the tarsus ( means sole of the foot )
Midsagittal Plane The plane that divides the body into EQUAL right and left halves ( also called the Median )
Sagittal The plane that divedes the body into UNequal right and left halves
Dorsal Plane Divides the body into upper ( dorsal ) and lower (ventral ) parts. Also called the Frontal plane
Transverse Plane is the plane that divides the body into head ( cranial ) and rear ( claudal ) parts
-logy the study of
Anatomy the study of the body
Physiology the study of the functions
Pathology the study of the nature, causes and delvelopement of abnormal conditions
-logist specialist
Arcade how teeth are arranged in the mouth
Palatal or Lingual surface part of the tooth that faces the tongue
Buccal surface part of the tooth that faces the cheek, sometimes called the Vestibular
Occlusal surface the surface that meets while chewing
Labial surface teeth that face the lips
Contact surface the sides of the teeth that touch each other also called Mesial and Distal
Cavity Is the hollow space in the body that contains and protects organs
Cranial cavity contains and protects the brain in the skull
Spinal cavity the hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column
Thoracic cavity( chest cavity ) the hollow space that contains the heart, lungs within the ribs
Abdominal cavity ( Peritoneal cavity ) is the hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion located betweent the diaphragm and pelvic cavity
Pelvic Cavity hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems ( urinary, bladder and rectum)
Abdomen between the thorax and pelvic
Thorax chest region between neck and diaphragm
Groin (inguinal) caudal region adjacent the thigh
Membranes thin layers of tussue that cover a surface, line a cavity or divide a space or an organ
Peritoneum membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavity and covers some organs in this area
Pariteal peritoneum the outer layer of the peritoneum tha lines the abdomen and pelvic cavities
Visceral peritoneum inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs
Peritonitis inflamation of the peritoneum
Umbilicus (navel) pit in the abdonminal wall marking point where umbilical enters fetus
Mesentery layer of the peritoneum that suspends part of the intestine to the abdominal cacity
Dorsal Recumbency lying on ones back
Ventral Recumbency (sternal ) lying on ones belly
Left lateral recumbency lying on ones left side
Right lateral recumbency lying on ones right side
Adduction movement towards the midline
Abduction movement away from the midline
Flexion closure of a joint angle, reduction of an angle between 2 bones-contracting biceps
Extension straightening of a joint angle or increase the angle between bones.
Hyperflexion ( Hyperextension ) joint is flexed or extened too far
Supination rotating the limb or body so that the palmer surface is turned upward
Pronation rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is is turned downward
Rotation movement that is circular around an axis
Cells structural units of the body.
Cytology study of cells
Protoplasm combination of cell memebrane, nucleus and cytoplasm
Cell Membrane (plasma membrane 0 the structure lining the cell that protects the contents and regulates what goes in and out of the cell
Cytoplasm gelatinous material located in the cell membrane that is NOT part of the nucleus. contains Organelles that that are the functional machinery of the cell.
Organelles specific roll in the metabolic reactions that take place in the cytoplasm
Nucleolus produces RNA that forms ribosomes, housed inside the Nucleus
Centrioles rod shaped organelles that maintain shape and move chromosomes during cell replications.
Mitochondria energy producers of the cell. large oval shaped
Golgi apparatus chemical processors of the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum Collection of folded membranes that may contain ribosomes ( know as rough endoplasmic reticulum which synthesize protein) or maybe void of folds known as smooth ER which systhesizes lipid and some carbohydrates
Ribosomes site of protein synthesis
Vacuoles small membrane-bound organelles containing water, food or metabolic waste
Lysomes digestive system of the cell
Nucleas contains the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, chromosomes and surrounding membrane
Nucleoplasm is the material in the nucleus
Chromosomes are the structure in the nucleus composed of DNA that transmits genetic information
Genetic something that pertians to genes or heredity
Genetic Disorder inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes
Congenital present at birth
Anomoly deviaton from the norm
Tissue specialized cells that are similar in structure and function
Histology study of the structure, compostion and function of tissue
Epithelial covers internal and external body surfaces and made of tightly packed cells
Epi- means above
-Thel/- thin membrane
-um stucture
Squamos flat cells
Cuboidal cube shaped cells
Columnar column shaped cells
Stratified multilayered cells
Endothelium cellular covering that forms lining of internal organs including blood vessels
Mesothelium cellular covering that forms the lining of serous(inner) membranes such as peritoneum
Serous inner layer
Connective Tissue another tissue type, adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together ( bone, cartilage, dense connective -tendons and ligaments, loose connective-attached to abdominal organs, and blood
Adipose Tissue connective tissue called fat or lipid tissue
MuscleTissue 3 types- skeletal, smooth and cardiac-contains cell material with the specalized abiltiy to contract and relax
Nervous tissue contains cells that specialize in the ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impluses.
-plasia formation, developement, number of cells(growth) in an organ or tissue
-trophy formation, development and size of an organ or tissue of individual cells
Anaplasia change in structure of cell and their orientation to each other
Aplasia lack of developement of an organ, tissue or cell
Dysplasia abnormal growth or development of an organ tissue or cell
Hyperplasia abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue
Hypoplasia incomplete or less than normal development in an organ , tissue or cell
Neoplasia abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells in incontrolled and more rapid than normal and progressive. usually forms a distinct mass of tissue called a tumor.
Benign tumor not recurring
Maglignant tumor tending to spread and an be life threatening
-oma tumor or neoplasm
Atrophy decrease in size of complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell
Dystrophy defective growth in the size of an organ tissue or cell
Hypertrophy increase in the size of an organ, tissue or cell
Glands Aden/o specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body
Exocrine glands group of cells that secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or to another organ. Example-sweat glad excretes outside body or sebaceous glands secrete chimicals into the digestive tract
Endocrine cells that secrete chemicals directly into the bloodstream which transports them throughout the body, these are ductless glands example: thyroid, pituitary, pancreas
Organ part of the body that preforems a special function(s)
Oste/o, Oss/e, Oss/i Bones- skeletal system
Arthr/o Joints-skeletal system
Chondr/o Cartilage-skeletal system
My/o muscles-muscular system
Fasc/i, Fasci/o Fascia -muscular system
Ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendons- muscular system
cardi/o heart- cardiovascular system
Ateri/o arteries-cardiovascular system
ven/o, phleb/o veins- cardiovascular system
Hem/o, hemat/o blood-cardiovascular system
lymph/o lymph vessels-lymphatic and immune systems
tonsill/i Tonsils-lymphatic and immune systems
Splen/o spleen-lymphatic and immune systems
thym/o thymus-lymphatic and immune systems
nas/o, rhin/o nose or nares- respiratory system
pharyng/o pharynx-respiratory system
trache/o trachea-respiratory system -Laryng/o
Laryng/o larynx -respiratory system
pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulm/o, pulmon.o lungs-respiratory system
or/o stomat/o mouth- digestive system
esophag/o esophagus digestive system
gastr/o stomach -digestive system
enter/o small intestines-digestive system
col/o, colon/o large intestine -digestive system
hepat/o liver- digestive system
pancreat/o pancreas-digestive system
ren/o, nephr/o kidneys- urinary system
ureter/o ureters-urinary system
cyst/o urinary bladder-urinary system
urethr/o urethra-urinary system
Neur/o, neur/i nerves- nervous system/senses
encephal/o brain-nervous system/senses
myel/o spinal cord-nervous system/senses
ophthalm/o, ocul/o, opt/o, opt/i eyes-nervous system/senses
optic/o sight-nervous system/senses
ot/o, audit/o, aud/i ears-nervous system/senses
aur/i, aur/o external ear-nervous system/senses
acoust/o, acous/o sound-nervous system/senses
dermat/o, derm/p. cutane/o skin- integumentary system
adren/o adrenals -endocrine system
gonad/o gonads-endocrine system
pineal/o pineal-endocrine system
pituit/o pituitary -endocrine system
thyroid/o thyroid- endocrine system
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, testicul/o testes- reproductive system
ovari/o, oophoroo ovaries-reproductive system
hyster/o, metr/o, metr/i, metri/o, uter/o uterus-reproductive system
1 uno, mono
2 duo, bi, dyo
3 tri
4 quadri, quadro, tetr, tetra
5 quinqu, quint, pent, penta
6 sex, hex, hexa
7 sept, septi, hept, hepta
8 octo, oct, octa
9 novem, momus, ennea
10 deca, decem, dek, deka
Tendons connects muscle to bone
Ligaments connects bone to bone
Ossification formation of bone from fibrous tissue, cartilage
Osteoblasts immature bone cells ( fetus to birth )
Osteocytes mature bone cells, hardened bone
Physis growth, cartilage segment of long bone that involves growth of bone also called growth plate or epiphyseal cartilage
dia between
peri surrounding
-um structure
meta beyond
Cortical bone ( compact bone ) hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outerlayer of bone( compact bone) cortex= bark or shell
Cancellous ( laticework) bone lighter, less strong bone found in the ends and inner portions of long bones, spongy bones
Epiphysis wide end of long bone, covered with cartilage and cancellous bone
Proximal epiphysis located nears the midline of the body
Distal epiphysis located farthest away from the midline
Diaphysis shaft of a long bone that is composed mainly of compact bone
Metaphysis wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis
Periosteum tough fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone
Endosteum tough fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary ( interspace ) cavity
Long bones consisting of a shaft, two ends, marrow cavity ( femur, humerous)
Short bones cube shaped, with no marrow cavity ( carpal bones )
flat bones thin, flat one( pelvis)
Pneumatic bones sinus-containing bones ( frontal bone)
irregular bones unpaired bones ( vertabrae )
sesamoid bones small bones embedded in a tendon ( patella)
Cartilage connective tissue that is more elastic than bone, used in the more flexible parts of the skeleton
Articular cartilage covers the joint surfaces of bone
Meniscus cartilage curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints ( stifle) cusions forces applied to joints
Articulate join in a way that allows motion betwen parts.
Synarthroses allow no movement ( cranium suture, fontenelle)
Amphiarthroses allow slight movement pelvic( joined tha the symphysis)
Diarthroses allows free movement, synovial joints ( ball and socket )
Suture jagged lines where bone is joined and forma a nonmoveable joint
Symphysis a joint where two bones are joined and held firmly together so that they function as one ( pelvic bone, mandibular bone- lower jaw)
Synovial jonts ball and socket joints also called Enarthrosis, speroid
Arthrodial( condyloid ) joints oval protusions that fit a socket
Trochoid joints pulley shaped joints
Hinge joints allow motion in one plane or direction
Saddle joint located in the thumb( only humans and primates have these) allows joint to flex, extend, abduct, adduct, and circumduct( circular motion)
Bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cushon to ease movement in areas of friction-shoulder joint
Synovial membrane Bursa and synovial joints have an inner lining that secretes fluid to act as a lubricant to make joint movement smoothe
Axial skeleton the framework of the body that includes skull, auditory ossicles, hynoid bone, vertebral column , ribs, and sternum
Appendiculare skeleton extremeties, shoulder and pelvic girdle
Cranium portion of the skull that encloses the brain
Frontal forms the roof of the cranial cavity or front. some species have horns here
Parietal paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity
Occipital forms the lower cranium where the foramen magnum or opening for the spinal cord
Foramen is an opening in the bone which tissue passes
temporal paired bone that forms the sides and base of the cranium
Ethmoid forms the rostral part if the bone cranium cavity (nose area)
Incisive forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edges of the nares-nostral
Pterygoid forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx
Sinuses air or fluid filled spaces in the skull
Brachycephalic dogs heads that are short and wide ( pugs, pekingese)
Dolichocephalic dogs heads that are long and narrow ( Collies and greyhounds)
Mesocephalic/mesaticephalic dogs heads that are average in width and length ex: labs.
Xygomatic forms the orbit and cheekbone, projections from the temporal and xygomatic bone form the cheekbone
Maxilla forms the upper jaw
Mandible forms the lower jaw
Palatine forms the hard palate
lacrimal forms the medial part of the orbit
nasal forms the bridge of the nose
Hyoid suspended between the mandible and the laryngopharynx
Vertabral column backbone, spinal column supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord. contains vertabra
Vertabra individual bone along the spinal column
Arch dorsal part of a vertabra that surrounds the spinal cord
Lamina left or right dorsal have of the arch
Process means projection
Spinous process single projection from the dorsal part of the vertabral arch
Transverse process latteral projections of the vertable arch
Articular process paired cranial and claudal projections located on the dorusm of the vertical arch
Foramen the opening in the middle of the vertabra through which the spinal cord passes
Inververtebral discs seperate and cushioned disks inbetween vertabra
Vertabral regions Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, Coccygeal (caudal)
Cervical area C, first vertabra(C1) is called Atlas, 2nd vertabra(C2) Axis
Thoracic area T, chest area
Lumbar Loin area
Sacral Sacrum area
Coccygeal Tail area
Sternum breast bone, forms the midline ventral portion of the ribs, divided into 3 parts.
Ribs paired bones that attach the thoracic vertebrae
Sternum-Manubrium is the cranial portion of the the sternum
Sternum-body is the middle portion
Sternum -Xiphoid process is the caudal portion
Thoracic cavity ribs, sternum thoracic vertabra
Appendicular skeleton scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpals and phalanges
Scapula shoulder blade, triangular bone on the side of the neck or thorax
Clavicle collar bone, connects the sternum to the scapula, some animal species dont have a clavicle ex: pigs and horses
Humerus/brachium long bone in the upper arm, proximal front limb
Radius larger bone in the forearm or distal front limb
Ulna smaller bone in the forearm or distal front limb, or caudal bone of the Radius
Carpal bones irregularly shaped bones in the area known as the wrist, or carpus in animals. known as the knee in large animals
Metacarpals are found distal(beyond) to the carpal bones, there can be several of these depending on the species, front leg
Phalanges are the finger bones or bones of the digit.1 bone of the flanges is called a phalanx, these bones are numbered(3) from proximal medial and distal. digit one is a dewclaw in dogs and cats,
Pastern joint is located between P1 and P2
Coffin joint located between P2 and P3
Oynch/o claw or P3
Pelvic /Hip consists of 3 bones ilium, ischium and pubis
Ilium largest pelvic bone and is blade shaped it articulates with the sacrum for for the sacrioliac joing
Ischium the caudal pair of bones
Pubis the ventral pair of bones that are fused on the midline by a cartilage joint called the pubic symphysis
Acetabulum large socket of pelvic bone that forms where 3 bones meet, the ball and socket joint with the femur
Femur thigh bone, proximal long bone of the rear leg
patella a large sesamoid bone on rear limb, called the knee cap ( stifle in dogs and cats )
tibia distal to the femur, a larger and more weight bearing bone then its mate fibula
Fibula distal to the femur, a long slender bone
Tarsus irregularly shaped bones, we call the ankles, hock in large animals
Talus shorter medial tarsal bone, located in the proximal row
Calcaneus long tarsal bones in the proximal row
Metatarsals beyond the tarsus same as metacarpals in the front foot.
Aperture small opening in bones
Canal tunnel in bones
Condyle rounded projections at the end of bones
Crest high projections or boarder projections of bones
Crista the ridge of the bone
Dens toothlike structure in a bone
Eminence Surface projection of a bone
Facet smooth area of a bone
Fissure deep cleft in a bone
foramen a hole in a bone
Fossa trench or hollow area of a bone
Fovea small pit in a bone
Head a major protrusion of a bone
Lamina a thin flat plate of bone
Malleolus rounded projections (distal end of tibia and fibula)
Meatus passage of opening in a bone
Process Projection of a bone
Protuberance projecting part of a bone
Ramus branch or smaller structure given off by a larger structure
Sinus space of cavity
Spine sharp projection
Sulcus groove in a bone
Suture seam in a bone
Trochanter broad, flat projection ( on femur )
Tubercle small round surface projection of a bone
Tuberosity projecting part of a bone.
Arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid for analysis
Athrography injection of a joint with contrast material for radiographic examination
Arthroscopy visual examination of a joint using a fiber optic scope
Densitometer device that measures bone density using light and xray
Goniometer insturment that measures angles or range of motion in a joint
Radiology the study of internal body structure after exposure to ionizing radiation, to detect disease or fractures
Anklyosis loss of joint mobility caused by disease, injury or surgery
Arthralgia Joint pain
Arthritis inflammatory condition of joints
Arthrodynia joint pain
Arthropathy joint disease
Bursitis inflammation of the bursa
Chondromalacia abnormal cartilage softening
Discospondylitis inflammation of the intervertebral disc and vetrabrae
Epiphysitis inflammation of the growth plate
Excotosis benign growth on the bone surface
Gouty arthritis join inflammation associate with the formation of uric acid crystals in the joint
Hip Dysplasia abnormal development of the pelvic joint causing the head of the femur and the acetabulum not to be aligned properly
Intervertebral disc disease/ herniated disc rupture or protrusion of the disc separating the vertabra
Kyphosis dorsal curvature of the spine, hunchback
Legg Calve-Perthes disease idiopathic necrosis of the femoral head and neck of small breed dogs.
Lordosis abnormally cured spinal column , sway back
Luxation dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
Myeloma tumor composed of cells derived from hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow
Ostealgia bone pain
Osteitis inflammation of the bone
Osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease
Osteochondrosis degeneration or necrosis of bone and cartilage followed by regeneration or re calcification
Osteomalacia abnormal softening of the bone
Osteomyeloritis inflammation of bone and bone marrow
Osteonecrosis death of bone tissue
Osteoporosis abnormal condition of marked loss of bone density and increase in bone porosity
Periostitis inflammation of the fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
Rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue and joints
Sequestrany Piece of dead bone that is partially or fully detached for the adjacent healthy bone
Spondylitis Inflammation of the vertebrae
Spondylosis any degenerative disorder of the vertebrae
Spondylosis deformans chronic degeneration of the articular process and the development of bony outgrowths around the ventral edge of the vertebrae
Spur bony projection growing out of a bone
Subluxation partial dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
Synovitis inflammation of the synovial membrane of joints
Avulsion fracture a broken bone in which the site of muscle, tendon, or ligament insertion is detached by a forceful pulling
Callus bulging deposit around the area of a bone fracture that may eventually become bone
Closed fracture broken bone in which there is no open wound in the skin, also known as a simple fracture
Comminuted fracture a broken bone that is splintered or crushed into multiple pieces
Compression fracture broken bone is produced when the bones are pressed together
Crepitation fracture cracking sensation that is felt and heard when broken bone is moved together, also known as Crepitus
Displaced fracture bone fracture parts are out of line
Greenstick fracture bone that is broken only on one side and the other side is bent, or Incomplete fracture
Immobilization act of holding , suturing, or fastening a bone in a fixed position, usually with a bandage or cast
Manipulation attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or a dislocation
Oblique fracture broken bone that has an angular break diagonal to the long axis
Open/Compound fracture broken bone which there is open skin
Pathologic fracture broken bone in an area of one weakened by disease
Malunion when fracture does not heal properly
Nonunion when fracture fails to heal
Valgus bones bones that will bend out
Varus bones that will bend in
Physeal fracture bone that is broken a the growth plate or epiphyseal line
Spiral fractture broken bone that is twisted apart of spiraled apart
Stress fracture broken bone caused by repetitive local stress on a bone
Transverse fracture broken bone that is broken at right angles to its axis, or straight across the bone
Amputation removal of some or all of a body part
Arthrodesis fusion of a joint or the spinal vertebrae by surgical means
-desis to bind or surgically fix
Chemounclelysis process of dissolving part of the center of an intervertebral disc by injecting a foreign substance
Craniotomy surgical incision or opening into the skull
External fixation alignment of bone maintained by immobilizing the bone near the fracture through the use of casts splint or external fixators -rods and pins
Osteotomy cutting into bone
Osteocentesis surgical puncture and tapping of a bone
Osteopexy surgical fixation of a bone
Osteostomy making a permanent new opening in a bone
Osteodesis binding together of bones
Osteoplasty surgical repair of a damaged bone
Ostectomy removal of a bone
Internal fixation alignment of bone maintained by immobilizing the gone directly at the fracture site through the use of wires, screws pins or plates
Laminectomy surgical removal of the dorsal arch of a verebra
Onychectomy removal of a claw
Muscles made up of a group of long slender cells called muscle fiber and encased in in a fibrous sheath
Skeletal muscle voluntary muscle- attaches bone to the body an make motion possible
Smooth muscle produce slow contractions to allow unconscious functioning of internal organs
Cardiac Muscle involuntary contraction of heart muscle
Facia sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscles
Aponeurosis fibrous sheet that provide attachement to muscular fibers and is a mean of origin or insertion of a flat muscle.
Kenesiology the study of movement
Antagonistic Muscle muscles that work against or opposite each other, one will contract while the other relaxes
Synergist muscles work together, contracting at the same time to support movement
Syn- together
-erg- work
Contraction- muscle meaning tightening
Relaxation- muscle meaning means lessening of tension
Neuromuscular- muscle meaning the point at which nerve endings come in contact with the muscle cells
Tonus- muscle meaning muscle tone, is balance muscle tension
Abductor -muscle function muscle that moves a part away from the midline
Adductor -muscle function a muscle that moves a part towards the midline
Flexor -muscle function muscle that bends a limb at the joint or decreases the joint angle.
Extensor -muscle function muscle that straightens a limb or increases the joint angle
Levator -muscle function muscle that raises or elevates a part
Depressor -muscle function muscle that lowers or depresses a part
Rotator- muscle function muscle that turns a body part on its axis
Supinator -muscle placement muscle that rotates the palmar or plantar surface upward
Pronator-muscle placement muscle that rotates the palmar or plantar surface downward
Pectoral -muscle placement located in the chest
Epaxial -muscle placement located above the pelvic axis
Intercostal -muscle placement located between the ribs
Infraspinatus -muscle placement located beneath the spine of the scapula
Supraspinatus -muscle placement located above spine of the scapula
Inferior -muscle placement below or deep muscle
Medius -muscle placement Middle muscle
Superior-muscle placement above
Externus -muscle placement outer muscle
Internus -muscle placement inner muscle
Orbicularis muscle muscles that surround another structure
Rectus muscle means straight align with the vertical axis of the body
Oblique muscle means slanted away from the midline
Transverse muscle means crosswise to the midline
Sphincter muscle means tight band and constrict the opening of a passageway
Deltiod -muscle shape a triangular muscle
Quadratus -muscle shape a 4 sided muscle, like in a thigh
Rhomboideus -muscle shape diamond shaped muscle, like back muscles
Scalenus -muscle shape unequally 3 sided
Serratus -muscle shape saw toothed muscle
Teres -muscle shape cylindrical muscles
Satorius -muscle shape one muscle of the thigh that flexes and adducts the leg
Gemellus -muscle shape twinned muscle
Gastrocnemius -muscle shape resembles the shape of a stomach
Electromyography test process of recording the electical activity of the muscle cell using electrodes stuck into the muscle. Or EMG
Electromyogram test is the record of the strength of muscle contraction caused by an electrical stimulation
Adhesion --muscle condition bands of fibers that hold structures together in an abnormal fashion
Ataxia -muscle condition lack of voluntary control of movement, wobbliness
Atonic -muscle condition lacking muscle tone
Atrophy -muscle condition decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell
Dystrophy-muscle condition defective growth
Faciitis -muscle condition inflammation of the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscle
Fibroma -muscle condition tumor composed of fully delveopled connective tissue, also called a Fibroid
Hernia -muscle condition protrusion of a body part through tissue that normally contain it.
laxity- muscle condition looseness
Leiomyositis - muscle condition inflammation of the smooth muscle
Myasthenia -muscle condition muscle weakness
-asthenia means weakness
Myoclonus- muscle condition spasm of muscle
-clon/o means violent action
Myoma- muscle condition bengin tumor of muscle
Myopathy- muscle condition abnormal condition or disease of muscle
Myotonia -muscle condition delayed relaxation of a muscle after contraction
Rhabdoyoma -muscle condition benign tumor of striated muscle
Tendinitis- muscle condition inflammation of the band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
Tetany -muscle condition muscle spasm or twitching
Myectomy-muscle condition surgical removal of a muscle or part of a muscle
Myoplasty-muscle condition surgical repair of a muscle
Myotomy-muscle condition surgical incision into a muscle
Tenectomy- tendon condition surgical removal of a tendon
Tenotomy- tendon condition surgical division of a tendon
Barrel -on a horse chest or trunk
Bars-on a horse V shaped structure on distal surface of the hoof
Cannon bone- on a horse 3rd metacarpal also called the shin bone
Cheek- on a horse fleshy portion of either side of the face
Chest-on a horse part of the body between the neck and abdomen, the thorax
Chestnuts-on a horse honry irregular growths on the medial surface of the equine leg, in the front legs are above the knees, in the rear legs the are near the hock
Coffin Joint- on a horse distal interphalangeal joint
Corners- on a horse 3rd incisors in mouth
Coranary Band- on a horse junction between the skin and the forn of the hoof, also called a Coronet
Crest - on a horse the root of the mane
Croup-on a horse muscular area around and above the tail base
Cutters-on a horse second incisors in mouth
Dock-on a horse solid part of the tail
Elbow-on a horse forelimb joint formed by distal humerus, proximal raduis and proximal ulna
Ergot-on a horse small keratinized mass of horn in a small bunch of hair on the palmer or plantar aspect of the fetlock
Fetlock -on a horse area of the limb between the pastern and the cannon- by the hoof
Fetlock joint-on a horse metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint- between the cannon bone and long pastern bone
Flank-on a horse side of the body between the ribs and ilium
Forelock-on a horse in maned animals, the most cranial part of the mane, haning down between the ears and onto the forhead
Frog-on a horse V shaped pad of the soft horn between the bars on the sole of the hoof
Gaskin/ Crus- on a horse muscular portion of the hindlimb between the stifle and hock, also called the Crus
Heart Girth-on a horse cicumference of the chest, just caudal to the shoulders and cranial to the back
Heel- on a horse caudal region of the hoof that has an area of soft tissue called the bulb
Hock or Tarsus-on a horse tarsal joint also called the tarsus
Hoof-on a horse hard covering of the digit and ungulates
Hoof Wall-on a horse hard horny outer layer of the covereing on the digit in ungulates
Ungulates any animal with hooves
Knee-on a horse carpus ( front or proximal limb)
Loin- on a horse lumbar region of the back between the thorax and pelvis
Mane-on a horse region of long coarse hair at the dorsal border of the neck and tremination at the poll (top of head)
Muzzle-on a horse 2 nostrals and the muscles of the upper and lower lip
Nippers-on a horse central incisors (teeth)
Paralumbar Fossa hollow areas of the flank whose boundaries are the transverse processes of the lumbar bertabrae and last rib and thigh
Pastern bone-on a horse area of the limb between the fetlock and hoof
Pastern Joint-on a horse proximal interphalangeal joint between the long and short pastern bones
Poll- in a horse top of the head
Quarter- on a horse lateral or medial side of the hoof
Shoulder-on a horse region around the large joint between the humerus and the scapula
Sole-on a hores palmar or plantar surface of the hoof
Stifle Joint-on a horse femorotibial and femoropatellar joint in quadropeds ( 4 legs)
Tail-on a horse caudal part of the vertabral column
Tail Head- on a horse base of the tail where it connects to the body
Teat-on a horse nipple of the mammary gland
Toe-on a horse Cranial side of the hoof
Udder- on a horse mammary glad
White line- on a horse fusion between the wall and sole of the hoof
Whithers-on a horse region over the dorsum where the neck joins the thorax and where the dorsal margins of the scapula lie just below the skin
Chin-on a dog/cat protrusion of the mandible
Dewclaw-on dogs/cat rudimentary first digit, does not reach the ground( where our thumbs would be)
Elbow-on dogs/cats forelimb joint formed by distal humerous and proximal redius/ulna
Forearm-on dogs/cats part of the foreleg supported by the radius and ulna, between the elbow and carpus
Forehead-on dogs/cats region of the head between the eyes and ears
Pinna-on dogs and cats projecting part of the ear, lying outside the head. the Auricle
Rump-on dog/cats sacral to the tailhead region of the back, also called the Croup
Created by: Trisha Fravel