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Psychology Chapter 1-4

The scientific study of BEHAVIOR & MENTAL processes. PSYCHOLOGY
Known as the "FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY" ( Philosopher and Physiologist ) WILHELM WUNDT
Known as the " FATHER OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY" ( American Philosopher ) WILLIAM JAMES
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Perspective begun by ? SIGMUND FREUD
He believed that Psychological problems were actually caused by conflicts between "ACCEPTABLE" behavior and "UNACCEPTABLE" unconscious sexual or aggressive motives. SIGMUND FREUD
Behavioral Perspective begun by ? JOHN WATSON
believed that PSYCHOLOGY must be " The Scientific study of observable behavior" & thought studying unconscious forces was unscientific. B.F. SKINNER
Four big ideas in Psychology Critical thinking ,Biopsychosocial Approach, The two track mind (dual processing),Exploring human strengths.
Thought there needed to be some balance to this and emphasized the study of human flourishing. MARTIN SELIGMAN
Psychology's 1st hundred years focused on understanding and treating troubles , and most of the field still studies these challenges . BIG IDEA # 4 Exploring human strengths
Our perception , thinking, memory , and attitudes all operate on two levels: CONSCIOUS and UNCONSCIOUS. BIG IDEA # 3 The two track mind ( DUAL processing)
Viewing behavior from three levels (Biological,Psychological & Social Cultural ) BIG IDEA # 2 Biopsychosocial Approach )
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather , it examines assumptions ,uncovers hidden values,weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions. BIG IDEA # 1 Critical Thinking)
Three Main Methods of Research : Descriptive,Correlational and Experimental Methods
Purpose : To observe and record behavior ; no manipulation of variables DESCRIPTIVE METHODS
Purpose: To detect naturally occurring relationships ; to assess how well one variable predicts another (DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION!!!!) CORRELATIONAL METHODS
Results caused by EXPECTATIONS alone. PLACEBO EFFECT
by Sigmund Freud ,he believed that psychological problems were actually cause d by conflicts between ACCEPTABLE behavior and UNACCEPTABLE unconscious sexual or aggressive motives . (major emphasis : how behavior springs from UNCONSCIOUS drives&conflicts PSYCHOANALYTIC / PSYCHODYNAMIC Perspective
John Watson & later B.F.Skinner Psychology must be "The scientific study of observable behavior"& though studying unconscious forces was unscientific. Behavioral results from OBSERVABLE stimuli & OBSERVABLE responses. Use mainly rats,dogs & nonhuman anima BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
Begun by Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow Main Belief: individuals strive to grow ,develop,& move toward self actual inaction.State of Fullfillment ,fucosing on positive aspects of a Human being rather than just the negative. major emphasis: growth,personal HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
"Brain as Computer"focus on how we encode ,process,store & retrieve info using a vast array of mental processes. ( Ex. Thinking,perception,memory,language & problem solving) information processing approach looking at how we take in Information ,processe i COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
Look at the role of biological factors in different areas of Psychology,look how body & brain enable emotions ,memories & sensory experiences . NEUROSCIENCE/BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE
Proposed by CHARLES DARWIN ,fucoses on natural selection,adaptation & evolution of behavior & mental processes. HUMAN TRAITS & TENDENCIES EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE
Look at how behavior & Thinking vary across situations & cultures.ETHNICITY,RELIGIONS,OCCUPATIONS & SOCIOECONOMIC. " "A fish doesn't know it's in water" Major Emphasis: social interactions & cultural determinants of behavior & mental processes. SOCIAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
A person who hold a doctoral degree in PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGIST
M.D. Degree prescribe medicine PSYCHIATRIST
Study of human functioning ,w/ the goals of discovering & promoting strengths & virtues that help individuals & communities to Thrive. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Axon Fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. CORPUS CALLOSUM
Relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex. THALAMUS
Controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern Endocrine system;linked to emotion and reward. HYPOTHALAMUS
Master Endocrine gland. PITUITARY
Helps control Arousal. RETICULAR FORMATION
Controls heartbeat and Breathing. MEDULLA
Pathway for NEURAL FIBERS traveling to and from brain;controls simple reflexes. SPINAL CORD
Coordinates voluntary movement and balance and supports memories of such. CEREBELLUM
Ultimate control and Information - processing center. CEREBRAL CORTEX
Controls SPEECH muscles via The Motor Cortex. BROCA's AREA
Transform VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS into an auditory code. ANGULAR GYRUS
Receives WRITTEN WORDS as visual stimulation. VISUAL
Formation of New Neurons NEUROGENESIS
The brains ability to change especially during childhood,by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. NEUROPLASTICITY
Mental states,other than ordinary walking consciousness,found during sleep ,dreaming ,Psychoactive drug use ,hypnosis ,meditation , etc. ALTERNATE STATES of CONSCIOUSNESS ( ASCs)
Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. SELECTIVE ATTENTION
Failure to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere. IINATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS
Periodic,Natural,Reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from COMA,GENERAL ANESTHESIA, or HIBERNATION . SLEEP
Recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. also known as "PARADOXICAL SLEEP" because the muscles are relaxed ( except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. REM SLEEP (Rapid eye movement)
Internal biological clock;regular bodily rhythms (like temperature and wakefulness) that occur 24 -hr cycle. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
Recurring problems falling or staying asleep INSOMNIA
Uncontrollable sleep attacks ,sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep. NARCOLEPSY
Disorder where the person repeatedly stops breathing until blood oxygen is so low it awakens the person just long enough to draw a breath. SLEEP APNEA
Sequence of I ages ,emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person'so mind. DREAM
Remembered storyline of a dream. MANIFEST CONTENT
The underlying meaning of a dream( FREUD believed that unconscious drives could be threatening if expressed directly,so our minds change actual images into SYMBOLS. LATENT CONTENT
The sleep -memory link this perspective proposes that dreams may help sift ,sort,and fix the days events in our memory. INFORMATION - PROCESSING THEORY
Developing and Preserving Neural Pathways - Perhaps dreams , or the brain activity linked w/ REM Sleep ,give the sleeping brain a WORKOUT that helps it develop. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Making sense of Neural static dreams are born when random neural activity spreads upward from the brain stem .Our brain tries to make sense of the activation by forming them into dreams. ACTIVATION SYNTHESIS THEORY
Dreams are reflection of brain MATURATION and Cognitive Development. COGNITIVE -DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES
Dream act as a SAFETY VALVE ,Discharging feeling that cannot be expressed in public. FREUD's WISH Satisfaction THEORY
Group of Techniques designed to refocus attention,block out all distractions , & produce an alternate state of consciousness. MEDITATION
Trancelike state of heightened suggestibility ,deep relaxation,and intense focus ; also considered a social interaction in which one person ( hypnotist) suggests to another (subject ) that certain perceptions,feelings,thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneo HYPNOSIS
The brain and spinal cord ; Body's DECISION MAKER CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( CNS)
The sensory and Motor Neurons connecting the Central Nervous System CNS to the rest of the body ; responsible for gathering information and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( PNS)
The result of genetic endowment . NATURE
The consequences of learning . Example:experiences NURTURE
Branch of Psychology that studies physical ,cognitive , and social change throughout the life span. (Womb - Tomb ) Developmental Psychology
A period early in life when exposure to certain stimuli or experience is needed for proper development. CRITICAL PERIOD
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. TEMPERAMENT
A periodof sexual maturation,during which a person becomes capable of reproducing;differences in growth rate if you will remember back. Changes in height and weight ,girls breast development & menstruation,boys deepening voice and beard growth. PUBERTY
Physical abilities our muscular strength ,reaction time ,sensory keenness, and cardiac output- all crest by our mid twenties. Young Adulthood (20s and 30s)
Menopause in women = 45-55 Middle age (40s age - 65)
Not all DOOMED & GLOOMED -There is a decrease in immune functioning ,but we are living longer & research has shown that memory disease like dementia & Akzheimer's r not "normal" parts of aging .Remaining Physical activity keeps them functioning longer. Late Adulthood (age 65+)
Birth nearly 2 years - Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.(OBJECT PERMANENCE & STRANGER ANXIETY SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
What are the 3 types of CORRELATION? Positive, Negative and No
Neuron- Produced chemicals that cross synapses to carry messages to other neurons or cells NEUROTRANSMITTERS
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues HORMONES
Peripheral nervous system division controlling the body’s SKELETAL muscles; also called the skeletal nervous system and controls voluntary movements. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Peripheral nervous system division controlling the GLANDS and the MUSCLES of internal organs such as the HEART ❤️ AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ANS ) subdivision that arouses the body , mobilizing it's energy in STRESSFUL situations SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
.(birth-nearly 2 yrs)- infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
(about 2 to 6 0r 7 yrs)- a child learns to use language but cannot yet perform the mental operations of concrete logic; lack the concept of conservation.Ex. Milk PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
(about 7-11 yrs)- children gain the mental operations (ability to reverse mental processes) that enable them to think logically about CONCRETE events; understand conservation CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE
(about 12-adulthood) – people begin to think logically about ABSTRACT concepts FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
Self-interest;obey rules to avoid punishment & gain concrete rewards...Ex.If you save your wife,you'll be a hero (before 9) Precoventional morality
Uphold laws & rules to gain social approval or maintain social order."If u steal the drug,everyone will think ur a criminal"(EARLY adolescence) Conventional morality
Actions reflect belief in basic rights & self defined ethical principles..(ADOLESCENCE & beyond) Postconventional morality
the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which members of a culture define male and female . GENDER
The BIOLOGY of Male and Female SEX
A set of expected behaviors for males or for females. GENDER ROLE
-an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either our own sex (homosexual orientation), other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation) SEXUAL ORIENTATION
One's sense of being male or a female. Gender Identity
The genitals become engorged with blood ; woman clitoris and man's penis swell ,a woman's vagina expand sand secrets lubricant. Excitement Phase
Excitement Peaks as breathing,pulse and blood pressure rates continue to increase. Man's penis become fully engorged ; woman's vaginal secretion continues to increase & her Clitoris retracts . Orgasm feels imminent. Plateau Phase
Muscle contractions appear all over the body & are accompanied by further increases in breathing ,pulse & blood pressure . Orgasm Phase
Gradual return of the body to unaroused state as genital blood vessels release their accumulated blood .Quick if orgasm occurred ,slowly if not. MEN enter a REFRACTORY PERIOD- that last from a few mins. To a day or more during w/c they are capable of anot Resolution Phase
Created by: sunflowersplace
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