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PSYC-4 Vocab

Psyc 101 Chapter 4 Vocab

development The age-related physical, intellectual, social, and personal changes that occur throughout an individual's lifetime.
zygote The fertilized human egg, containing 23 chromosomes from the father and 23 chromosomes from the mother
germinal period The period in prenatal development from conception to implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterus
embryonic period The period of prenatal development lasting from implantation to the end of the eighth week
fetal period The period of prenatal development lasting from the ninth week until birth.
teratogens Environmental agents--such as disease organisms or drugs--that can potentially damage the developing embryo or fetus
puberty The period during which a person reaches sexual maturity and is potentially capable of producing offspring
menopause The period during which a woman's menstrual cycle slows down and finally stops
dementia Physically based losses in mental funcitoning
habituation The decline in responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented
longitudinal design A research design in which the same people are studied or tested repeatedly over time
cross-section design A research design in which people of different ages are compared at the same time
schemata Mental models of the world that we use to guide and interpret our experiences
assimilation The process through which we fit--or assimilate--new experiences into existing shcemata
accomodation The process through which we change or modify existing schemata to accommodate new experiences
sensorimotor period Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, lasting from birth to about 2 years of age; schemata revolve around sensory and motor abilities
object permanence The ability to recognize that objects still exist when they are no longer in sight
preoperational period Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, lasting from ages 2 to about 7; children begin to think symbiotically but often lack the ability to perform mental operation such as conservation
principle of conservation The ability to recognize that the physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in the object's appearance
egocentrism The tendency to see the world from one's own unique perspective only; a characteristic of thinking in the preoperational period of development
concrete operational period Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, lasting from ages 7 to 11. Children acquire the capacity to perform a number of mental operations but still lack the ability for abstract reasoning.
formal operational period Piaget's last stage of cognitive development; thought processes become adultlike, and people gain mastery over abstract thinking
morality The ability to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate actions
conventional level In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which actions are judged to be right or wrong based on whether they maintain or disrupt social order
postconventional level Kohberg's highest level of moral development, in which moral actions are judged on the basis of personal code of ethics that is general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms
attachements Strong emotional ties formed to one or more intimate companions
temperament A child's general level of emotional reactivity
strange situation test Gradually subjecting a child to a stressful situation and observing his or her behavior toward the parent or caregiver; used to classify children according to type of attachement
personal identity A sense of who one is as an individual and how well one measures up against peers
gender role Specific patterns of behavior that are consistent with how society dictates males and females should act
preconventional level In Kohlberg's theory, the lowest level of moral development, in which decisions about right and wrong are made primarily in terms of external consequences
ageism Discrimination or prejudice against an individual based on physical age
Created by: katielucas16
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